Normal anxiety differs from clinical anxiety disorders in terms of the kind, number, duration and severity of symptoms as well as the degree of dysfunctionality it endangers .However the boundary that separates normal moods from clinical disorders can be hazy one as in the case of the boundary that separates normal anxiety from the clinical syndrome labelled generalised anxiety disorders (GAD) . Generalised anxiety disorder frequently manifests itself as an incomplete recovery from a number of anxiety and depressive disorders or as a harbinger to another depressive episode .some patients diagnosed with their social or occupational functioning (dysfunctionality) while others experience a waxing and waning of symptoms just below the diagnostic threshold for long periods of time GAD is often a “comorbid –disorder “ appearing in a given individual in conjunction with another disorder ,such as substance abuse ,it is a very serious disorder and while treatable with anxiolytic drugs full recoveries after two years of treatment occur in only about 20% of the cases GAD is definitly not just a series of bad hair days .The diagnostic criteria for GAD taken from the American psychiatric association’s diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders:
1.excessive anxiety and worry (apprehensive expectation) occurring more days than not for at least six months ,about a number of events or activities (such as work or school performance)
2.difficulty in controlling that worry.
3.anxiety and worry associated with three or more ofthe following six symptoms present for more days than not for the past six months.(note:only one is required for children )
a.restless or feeling keyed up or on edge
c.irritability d.muscle tension e.sleep disturbance (difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep or restless and unsatisfactory sleep.)
4.the focus of the anxiety and worry is not confined to the features of another axis —9 disorders ,such as panic disorder ,social phobia anorexia nervosa separation anxiety and soon.
5.the anxiety worry or physical symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social occupationalor other important areas of functioning.
6.the disturbance is not due to a substance or general medical condition and does not occur exlusively during a mood psychotic or developmental disorder.
ANXIETY IN NORMAL POPULATIONS
Anxiety is no stranger to us ,while we may be unable to come up with a text book definition .we all know that it feels like and each of us can predict circumstances when it is likely to occur in our own lives .Anxiety is not the same as being anxious both involve physiological arousal but the cognitive aspects of the affect (emotion) are dissimilar waiting at the airport arrival gate anxious to meet our lover who has been gone for far too long involves a mixture of mainly positive affect and arousal .The element of anticipation is central.
It’s a different story when we are sitting in our dentists waiting room ,listening to the muted sound of his whining drill.Knowing that our root canal is next on his list of things to do .We are experiencing anticipatory anxiety here as well but the effect is unpleasant and apprehension is the central feature .then there are circumstances where the arousal can be intense but a confusing blend of positive and negative effect,suppose for the first time in years we unexpectedly meet a stranger to whom we find ourselves immediately attracted on many levels It is a rare occurrence when some one such as this steps forth from the crowd on the one hand we are simply unwilling to let such an opportunity pass
with out seizing the moment such as inviting this person for a drink or lunch but on the other hand there is the fear that the felings might not be mutual and that we could well get summarily rejected ,such intense arousal can involve mixed and conflicting feelings as well as cognitive factors (weighing the risks and anticipating the future ) Anxiety has many dimentions .It can be objective or subjective (imaging or magnifying threats ) and invoves feelins cognitions and physiological changes.Anxiety is closely related to fear with regard to a predictable sequence of bodily changes .Our blod pressure elevates and our heart rate quickens our muscle tence and our digestive functions slow or stop (butterflies in our stomach).In the case of extreme fear ,we often lose control of our excretory symptoms anxiety can depending on the circumstances intensify into full-blown fear or even panic but when we speak of anxiety we are talking about a kind of physiological arousal that is less intense than fear anxiety is unpleasant and typically has an anticipatory apprehensive character.Anxiety is normal ,but it can become a problem when it disrupts your everyday activities .If you find your self worrying all the time ,particularly if your sleep is disturbed you may find that going regular;y to relaxation classes or taking up yoga helps you to control your thoughts .Vigorous exercise can also be helpful as it releases tension and stimulates the release of endorphins the body ‘s happy harmones.
Great anxiety and restlessness,a great fear
That some thing will happen,worse around
Midnight ——— –Arsenicum album
Apprehension and dread of the future
Despair of getting better ,irritable feelings
And a desire to be left alone —————- -Bryonia alba
Fear that others will observe this confusion
Of mind deeply affected by sad stories
Fear that something will happen intensely
Sympathetic to the suffering of others ———- –Causticum
Anxiety about under taking new things health conflict
Career an aversion to company yet a need to have
Some one in the next room stage fright. —————– Lycopodium
Tremendous anxiety abiut health and a dread of serious
Disease irritable and peevish ,especially early morning ——nitric acid
Many fears especially about thunder storms some thing
Bad happening or the dark. Easily startled .A need for
Company and sympathetic to others. ——phosphorus
Fearful of being abandoned ,yet needing reassurance
,prone to weeping .Afear of heights of being shut in of
The dark and of robbers. ——–pulsatilla
Pessimistic,restless anxiety about the future .A fear of
Poverty cancer or failure,great anxiety at night ——psorinum
Restlessnes-both mental and physical anxiety about
The children superstitious feelings and a fear of accidentally
Killing some one ———Rhus tox
Anxiety about health ,the future accidents or disease
In the family ,low self confidence ——Sulphur
DOSAGE::Use the 200c potency ,every two hours for up to 6 doses until the anxiety is relieved
Anxious and sensitive to events feelings are made worse by consolation——“silica”
REVIEWS OF RESEARCH ON EXERCISE AND ANXIETY::
There have been more than eleven hundred investigations inquiring about the effect of exercise on various aspects of mental functions and in excess of twenty reviews of those investigations that have examined the association between exercise and anxiety .The reviews of epidemiological surveys of more than seventy thousand house hold adults in three countries discussed in earlier chapter ,offered convincing evidence that physical activity is associated with a more positive mood profile ,particularly in lower levels of anxiety and depression .There have also been dozens of experimental studies targeting the effects of exercise on anxiety .Larry Leith ,author of foundations of exercise and mental health ,reviewed fifty six empirical studies that examined the specific effect of exercise on anxiety .He reported that 73% of those studies found significant reductions in anxiety following exercise .His findings are in line with most other reviews which largely conclude that single bouts of vigorous exercise are associated with decreased state anxiety which persists for several hours in persons with either normal or above normal anxiety levels and extended programs of regular exercise are associated with reductions in triat anxiety.