Anaemia is a common nutritional deficiency disorder and global public health problem which affects both developing and developed countries. Anaemia is children and women worsened in the past half a decade across most states and Union Territories. So in the review we investigate anaemia types, causes, symptoms and their treatments.
KEYWORDS – Anaemia, causes, classification, symptoms, homoeopathy in anaemia
INTRODUCTION 1 and 2
Anaemia has been defined as a reduction in one or more of the major red blood cell (RBC) measurement :
- Haemoglobin concentration
- RBC count
Age & Sex Group Hb (g/dl)
- Children 6 months‐6yrs <11
- Children 6 ‐14yrs <12
- Adults(males) <13
- Adults(females,non‐pregnant) <12
- Adults(females, pregnant) <11
TYPES OF ANAEMIA 1 and 2
There are several types and classifications of anaemia. The occurrence of anaemia is due to the various red cell defects such as:
- Production defect – Aplastic Anaemia
- Maturation defect – Megaloblastic anaemia
- Defects in haemoglobin synthesis – Iron deficiency anaemia
- Genetic defects of haemoglobin maturation – Thalassemia
- Synthesis of abnormal haemoglobin – Haemoglobin, Pathies, sickle cell anaemia and Thalassemia
- Physical loss of red cells – Hemolytic Anemia
This is a condition in which the body lacks the amount of red blood cell to keep up with the body’s demand for oxygen.
CAUSES OF ANAEMIA 6
The commonest cause of anaemia are nutritional disorders and infections.
- Iron Deficiency :
Iron deficiency is a consequence of:
- Decreased iron intake
- Increased iron loss from the body
- Increased iron requirement
- Vitamin B12 Deficiency :
Vitamin B12 deficiency is a consequence of:
- Diet with little or no animal protein
- Parasitic infections of small intestine
- Folic AcidDeficiency :
Folic AcidDeficiency is a consequence of:
- Diet with low in fresh fruits, vegetables and fortified cereals
- Gastrointestinal tract diseases
- Excessive alcohol intake
- Helminthic Infestation :
Helminths such a hookworm and flukes cause chronic blood loss and consequently iron loss from the body, results in the development of anaemia.
- Malaria :
Malaria especially plasmodium falciprum and plasmodium vivax causes anaemia by rupturing RBC’s and suppressing production of RBC’s.
- Infections :
Certain chronic diseases such as cancer, HIV/AIDS, R.A., Crohn’s diseases and other chronic inflammatory diseases can interface with production of RBC’s resulting in chronic anaemia.
- Genetics :
Sickle cell anaemia is an inherited disorder of haemoglobin and among the most common genetic diseases in the word.
SYMPTOMS OF ANAEMIA 1 and 2
Anaemia signs and symptoms vary depending on the cause and severity of anaemia. Depending on the cause of your anaemia, you might have no symptoms.
Signs and symptoms, if they do occur, might include:
- Muscle cramps
- Postural dizziness
- Persistent hypotension, shock, and death (in severe cases)
- Atrial fibrillation
- Chronic leg ulcer
- Slight proteinuria
HOMOEOPATHIC THERAPEUTICS 3 and 4
Following are some frequently prescribed homoeopathic remedies in anaemia depending upon an individual’s need.
- Arsenic Album :
Blood is disorganized causing pernicious type of anaemia and severe septic conditions. Haemorrhages black and offensive. Weakness and emaciation is rapid. Pains are burning like fire, hot needles. Pain causes shortness of breath and chilliness. Trembling, jerking, convulsions and choreic twitchings. Dropsy, pale, puffy, baggy swelling.
- Calcarea phos :
Indicated in anaemias after acute diseases and chronic wasting diseases. Anaemic children with peevish, flabby, cold extremities and feeble digestion. Infant wants to nurse all the time and vomits easily. Sunken and flabby abdomen. Bleeding after hard stool. Pains in joints and bones.
- Ferrum Phos :
Suitable to nervous, sensitive, anaemic persons with false plethora and easy flushing. Epistaxis, bright red blood. Flushed cheeks, sore and hot. Desire for stimulants. Vomiting of undigested food. Vomiting of bright red blood. Menses every three weeks with bearing down sensation. Palpitation, pulse rapid. Restless and sleepless. Night sweats of anaemia.
- Graphites :
Active in patients who are rather stout, of fair complexion with tendency to skin affections and constipation, fat, chilly with delayed menstrual history. Tendency to develop skin disorders and erysipelas. Anaemia with redness of face. Swollen genitals. Induration of tissue. Duodenal ulcer.
- Zincum Met :
Tissues are worn out faster than they are repaired. Poisoning from suppressed eruptions or discharges. Defective vitality. Impending brain paralysis. Period of depression in disease. Spinal affections. Twitchings. Pain, as if between skin and flesh. Great relief from discharges. Chorea, from fright or suppressed eruption. Convulsions, with pale face and no heat. Marked anaemia with profound prostration. It causes a decrease in the number, and destruction of red blood corpuscles. Repercussed eruptive diseases. In chronic diseases with brain and spinal symptoms, trembling, convulsive twitching and fidgety feet are guiding symptoms.
Anaemia is the important global health risk factors forced by the teenagers and pregnant women now-a-days. Anaemia should be diagnosed earlier and treated to get healthy generations.
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Health24. What is Anaemia? 16.02.2013. Available from- https://www.news24.com/amp/health24/medical/anaemia/overview/Anaemia-20130216-3
Dr. Amritpreet Kaur
Lecturer, Department of Homoeopathic Pharmacy, HMC&H, Chandigarh
Dr. Ravneet Kaur
Intern, Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh