What Is lm, Ch, Cm, 3x Potency in Homeopathy Prescribing, Potentization

Potency, Potentisation And Application Of Homoeopathic Medicines


Introduction : Potencies are a unique feature of homoeopathic practice

The potencies are energized dilutions (or attenuations ) of the mother tinctures of homoeopathic remedies .

Potency numbers which follow the name of the homoeopathic remedies indicate the number of sequential or serial dilutions and successions (potentisation steps) of the original mother tincture . It follows , therefore , the greater the potencies number the greater the dilution .

Potency numbers must be qualified by denoting the potency series in terms of the decimal or centesimal series . suffixes to the potency numbers may be :

X (or x ) —–    denoting serial dilutions in the ratio of 1 part mother tincture to 9 parts of a solution of alcohol and wter , that is dilutions in the ratio of 1:10 –the decimal series of potencies .

C ( no suffix in UK) —-denoting serial dilutions in the ratio of 1 part of mother tincture to 99 parts of a solution of alcohol and water , that is dilutions in the ratio of 1:100 —the centesimal series of potencies .

Thus for example , we have :

 6x    the sixth decimal potency

12x   the twelfth decimal potency

24x  the 24th decimal potency

6C (or6) 6th centesimal potency

30C (or 30 ) 30th centesimal potency  

200C (or 200) 200th centesimal potency

1000C (1M ) the 1000th centesimal  potency


‘Potency’ means literally power or strength .

In the potentisation procedure , succussion energies the dilution and this is stored as potential energy . The view generally held is that this energy is released from the infinitesimally small , catalytic homoeopathic dose as kinetic energy , activating or stimulating the body’s own natural defense mechanism to effect the cure , it might be assumed that the higher the potency ( and hence the higher the dilution ) the greater the (healing) power , but although this is often the case , it is not strictly true , as we must consider this power in terms of the correct choice of potency for a particular case . Given the selection of the correct remedy in a case , potencies may modify or enhance the therapeutic activity of the remedy . It is therefore , a power full tool in the hands of the practitioner . Whilst potency is important in homoeopathic prescribing , the choice of the correct remedy according to the law of similar is of prime importance . Hence , if the correct remedy is chosen to treat an illness it may lead to some improvement in the illness whatever the potency prescribed , on the other hand the incorrect remedy will be of no value whatever the potency prescribed .

As Hahnemann discovered , potencies , through their high dilutions , over come the often toxic nature of the concentrated (allopathic) dose . Indeed this was his original aim . the modifying or enhancing influence of high dilutions on therapeutic activity proved subsequently to be of equal benefit .

                                         COMMON POTENCIES

The potencies most commonly prescribed universally are : 


VERY HIGH —  CM                        1×10   –200,000

                              50M                       1×10—-50,000

                             10M                        1×10—-20,000

         HIGH          1M   (1,000C)        1×10—-2,000

                             200C                       1×10—–400

MEDIUM           30C                         1×10—– 60

                             30X                         1×10—-  30

                             24X                         1×10——24

LOW                    6C                          1×10——12

                            12X                          1×10——12

                            6X                           1×10—— 6   (1 in 1 million )

                            3X                             1×10——-3  (1 in 1000 )

those under lined are prime potencies and are the most used  (6X,6C,30C,200C,1M ) in practice

N.B   — In France , potencies of 4C,5C,7C,9C and 30C are most favored . French law does not permit potencies above 30C

Gemmotherapy preparations and Lithotherapy preparations are prescribed in potencies of 2X and 8X respectively .

In order to have supplies of prime potencies freshly prepared and quickly available in homoeopathic pharmacies to hold pre potencies or stock potencies of potency numbers one less than the prime potencies , that is 5x,5c,29c,199c,etc.,thus only one potentisation step is necessary to produce the prime potency .

Dr.Samuel Hahnemann favored the use of potencies 6X,12X,up to 30C . He did however experiment with potencies up to 50C in the latter part of his carrier .


Acute disease as a condition with sudden onset , clearly defined , severe symptoms and of relatively short duration . Although there is some difference of opinion , as a general rule , these conditions are treated with low potencies at a high frequency of dosage (for example , hourly , three times a day ) .

Chronic disease , in this context is viewed as a more deep seated , probably inherited disease , with ill-defined symptoms and time of onset of the disease and long lasting . As a general rule , these conditions are treated with high potencies at a low frequency of dosage ( for example , once a week ,once a month )

However , these high potencies may , in certain circumstances , be preceded by prescribing a low potency . As a well respected veteran homoeopathic physician remarked , “ if I choose the right remedy and prescribe first in a high potency , I have no where to go ! “


Potentisation , as it it is termed , is carried out successively in two distinct steps

1.serial(or sequential) dilution of the mother tincture with a mixture of alcohol and water

2.each dilution is followed by succession , which involves vigorous shaking with impact .

there are two series of dilutions , the decimal series , based on serial dilutions of 1:10 and the centesimal series based on serial dilutions of 1:100 . The decimal series of potencies is denoted as 1x , 2x , 3x, 4x , …etc., whilst the centesimal series is denoted as 1c , 2c , 3c , 4c , ….Nc ( in UK ). X is the Roman numerical for 10 , and C the Roman numerical for 100

(a)Decimal  series of potencies – the method of preparation is as follows :

To one part (or 1 ml )) of mother tincture in a glass container is added 9 parts (or 9 ml )) of 20 or 30% alcohol /pure water , and the mixture is succussed , giving a potency of 1x ( the first decimal potency) .

To one part (or 1 ml ) of a solution of potency 1x , in a new container , is added a further 9 parts ( or 9 ml ) of alcohol ? water and the mixture is succussed again , giving a potency of 2x ( the second decimal potency )

This serial ( or sequential ) dilution and succussion is repeated to produce , progressively , potencies of 3x , 4x , 5x , 6x, and so on up the decimal series .

Thus we have decimal dilutions as follows :

1x—-1 part of mother tincture in 10 parts alcohol/water . dilution 1:10

2x—-1 part in 100                                                                   dilution 1:100

3x—-1 part in 1000                                                                 dilution 1:1000

4x—-1 part in 10,000                                                           dilution  1:10,000

6x—-1 part in 1,000,000                                                    dilution 1:1,000,000


(b).centesimal series of potencies :

The method of preparation is the same as for decimal potencies , but the dilution ratio is different (1:100), as follows :

To one part (or 1ml) of mother tincture in a glass container , is added 99 parts (or 99 ml ) of alcohol/water and the mixture is succussed giving a potency of 1c .

To one part (or 1 ml) of a solution of potency 1c in a fresh container , is added a further 99 parts (or 99 ml ) of alcohol/water , and the mixture is succussed again , giving  a potency of 2c .

This process is repeated to produce , progressively , potencies of 3c , 4c , 5c , 6c , and so on .

Thus we have centesimal dilutions as follows :

1c—-1 part in 100                          1:100

2c—-1 part in 10,000                     1:10,000

3c—-1 part in 1,000,000               1:1,000,000

4c—-1 pat in 100,000,000             1:100,000,000




In UK , it is customary to denote centesimal potencies by the potency number alone ( that is with out suffix c ) thus we have 1,2,3,4,5,6 and so on .

It can be seen from the above that the dilution of potencies 1c and 2x are the same –that is one part of mother tincture in one hundred parts of alcohol / water .

Similarly 2c is the same dilution as 4x

3c is the same dilution as 6x

4c is the same dilution as 8x

However it is incorrect to define potencies in terms of dilution alone as , although dilution may be the same , the number of successions , which are an integral part of the potentisation process , are different .

For example , the dilution of potencies of 3c and 6x are the same , but the former has required three dilutions and three successions and the latter , six serial dilutions and successions they differ , therefore , in the energy associated with them .

(c)millesimal series of potencies :

A third potency series is the millesimal scale , based on mother tincture sequentially diluted in the same manner as before , with 999parts (or 999ml ) of alcohol/water .

Potencies on the millesimal scale are sometimes denoted 1M,2M,3M etc., but this leads to confusion with the use of 1M to denote a centesimal potency of 1,000 . Another system , which is probably more explanatory , is to denote millesimal potencies by the suffix MM or mm

It follows that millesimal dilutions are :

1 mm    1:1000

2 mm    1:1,000,000

3 mm    1:1,000,000,000 millesimal potencies are used very rarely


The selection of a suitable potency in a given case requires more experience than theoretical knowledge .

Eminent practitioners have cured cases not only by lower potencies but also by high and very high potencies . there is no one definite and positively drawn line of thinking for the selection of potencies , we can only gain some inkling and inflence by reading some clinical cases presented by our seniors in the past . Dr.Kent a very experienced and respected by our seniors suggests to use potencies in the range of 30C, 200C,1M,10M,50M,and CM and even DM and MM depending upon the nature of the case . It is not advisable to administer high potencies to patients who have feeble health as they may cause severe aggravation , some times leading to unbearable suffering.

These words really make any one shiver when thinking of high potencies , but at the same time , we must realize that a patient can also die with a low potency when such a patient was needed most of a high potency for the cure . It is suggested to a beginner to start with 30th potency and gradually increase the potency in degrees to high and higher potencies until cure is complete .

About the author

Dr B.S Suvarna

Dr. (mrs) B.S.SUVARNA, B.A, D.I.HOM (LOND), M.I.H, Ph.D.(ITALY) (gold medalist)
HOMOEO PHYSICIAN. PGDPC (USA) psychotherapy&counselling
(Associate Editor-homoeopathic horizon, e-journal)
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