What do you mean by Psychology?
it is a scientific study of Behaviour, in turn it means that it is scientific in nature but to study the behaviour there is only one way, that is observation.
What are the different methods to evaluate psychology?
- Introspection method
- Naturalistic observation method
- Experimental method
- Differential method
- Clinical method
- Psycho physical method
In this method one’s own behaviour by looking within or looking inward.That is in the form of thoughts, feelings or sensations. But the major drawback is It is only applicable to the adult normal human beings. The behaviour of children, abnormal human beings & animals can’t be studied in this method.
Naturalistic observation method:
In this type of study an observer will perceive an individual’s behaviour under natural conditions & the observer interprets & analyses the individuals behaviour.
Experiment (Latin word) means “to try” or “put to the test”. It is the most scientific & objective method of studying behaviour, the experiments are done in the physical or social settings to study the cause & the effect relationship regarding the behaviour.
Experimental designs used in experimental method:
- The control test or single group design:
- Control group design
- Multiple group design:
- Design involving rotation
Differential method/field survey
This method is based on the individual differences. The differential method is also known as normative survey method/ field survey method. In this method its all about statistical analysis & calculations.
2 Types of Designs Are Used in Differential Method:
i) Correlation approach:
ii) The longitudinal & cross-sectional method.
The clinical setup or environment will be associated with the individuals who wants treatment or advice for their physical and mental disorders. In this we will investigate the root cause of the problem.
Clinical psychology: – it’s the art and technology of dealing with the adjustment problems of the individual clinically. The clinical technology should be helpful in making mankind healthier and better.
Psycho physical method:
It’s the study of relationship between physical and psychological phenomenon. In this physical device are used for the scientific measurement of some psychological experiences.
The evolution of different methods of psychology is remarkable, from introspection method where was only introspection or self-analysis of the subject in order to study the behaviour till the psycho physical method which analysis the behaviour of the person with the help of instruments shows us the improvements in the various methods of psychology. But the ultimate goal of all the methods is to understand the human behaviour.
- Stangor, Charles. (2007). Research Methods for the Behavioral Sciences. 3rd ed. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company.
- Weathington, B.L., Cunningham, C.J.L., & Pittenger, D.P. (2010). Research Methods for the Behavioral and Social Sciences. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Dr Skandhan. S. Kumar, BHMS MD Organon of Medicine (Gold Medalist),
Assistant professor department of organon of medicine and philosophy,
Father Muller Homoeopathic Medical College.