Therapeutic usefulness of snake and spider venoms in homoeopathic treatment

Therapeutic usefulness of snake and spider venoms in homoeopathic treatment

Therapeutic -homeopathy360


Snake and spider are capable of producing venoms and use their venoms as a defense mechanism against predators and by which they immobilize their prey by blocking the cardiovascular, respiratory, and/or nervous systems. Once injected into the body the targeted physiological systems are blocked or stimulated by peptide toxins at a molecular level.  Venom’s pharmaceutical properties have made it valuable both as pharmacological tools and as leads for drug development. It contains a huge variety of molecules affecting vital physiological systems, and these life-threatening toxins can be turned into a source of life-saving therapeutics.

Key words: venoms, spiders, doctrine of signature, araneida, ophidia, theraphosidae, haemorrhages, paralysis.


In the animal kingdom, one of the large families contributing various drugs to homoeopathy is the ophidian group. The ophidian group contains snakes proper. The snake is one of the most ancient and most grandiose mythological characters. The snakes have been playing great role in medical history and Hindu philosophy since ages. 1


There are more than 2600 species of snakes in the world. Of these, about 216 species are found in India, of which 52 are poisonous. Most of the snakes are non – poisonous and harmless, only a few are poisonous. The poisonous snakes are cobras, vipers, kraits, coral snakes and sea snakes. 1


  1. Snake is extremely sensitive to heat, so it lives in deep burrows, where it is cooler, the patient of ophidian group is worse from warmth, by hot drinks, in sun and in summer.
  2. The snake is more ferocious and poisonous when hungry, the patient of ophidian group is, aggravated by fasting and ameliorated after eating.
  3. Snakes are poisonous, when we say the mind is poisoned. It means that there is jealousy and suspicion, suspicion and jealousy are the characteristic symptoms of the patients.
  4. The snake coils itself from left to right, symptoms of the ophidian group proceed from left to right( except Crotalus horridus and Elaps corallinus as they are right sided).
  5. Immediately after snakebite, the blood is let out from that site as a therapeutic measure to limit the extent of damage, general relief from bleeding and any other discharges.
  6. The snake is very sensitive to touch and vibrations; the patient is aggravated by touch and slight sound.
  7. The snakes can swallow relatively large creatures  easily. Due to pressure created by solids in the throat it can easily swallow the solids, patient can swallow solids easily.
  8. The stools of the snakes are black and offensive; the discharges in ophidian group are dark and offensive. 1


I. Paralysis
Features of typical bulbar paralysis occur in Naja tripudians.
The paralysis of Ophidia group occur in right side as well as left side.
Right side
(1) Crotalus horridus
(2) Crotalus cascavella
right sided hemiplegia.It is complementary to Lachesis mutus as it completes the curative action.)
(3) Elaps corallinus
(4) Bothrops lanceolatus
-hemiplegia with aphonia 2
Left side
(1) Lachesis mutus has left sided paralysis especially from apoplexy.
There will be extensive paralysis
Naja tripudians: Bulbar paralysis, sphincter control will be lost.
Vipera berus: Paraplegia of lower extremities, resembling acute ascending paralysis of Landry.
Bangarus fasciatus: Acute polioencephalitis and myelitis.2

II. Constriction of throat – larynx and sphincters
(i)Lachesis mutus: Constriction of throat, larynx and abdomen, with intolerance to least touch or pressure, especially on neck. There’ll be constriction in rectum. Anus will feel tight. There will be dysphagia for liquids as in Bothrops.
(ii) Cenchris contortrix: There’ll be constriction as in Lachesis with the neces sity for having the clothes loose. There will be vivid dreams. Like Arsenic alb, there’ll be dyspnoea; Mental and physical restlessness; Thirst for small quantities of water.
(iii) Elaps corallinus: There’ll be constriction of pharynx. Food and drinks are suddenly arrested and “ fall heavily into stomach.”
(iv) Crotalus horridus: There’ll be spasms o The patient is not able to swallow any solid substances. There’ll be an intolerance to clothing around stomach.
(v) Vipera berus: Tears his clothes open due to violent congestion in chest. There’ll be “Cardiac anguish with violent, chest pains.”
(vi) Naja tripudians: Grasping throat with a sense of choking. There will be asthmatic constriction in evening.
(vii) Bothrops lanceolatus- There will be constriction in throat with difficulty in swallowing, especially towards liquids.2

III. Haemorrhages of dark, non-coagulable decomposed black blood oozing from all orifices of the body with ecchymosed.
(i) Lachesis mutus: Oozing of dark, decomposed blood, purpura with intense prostration, epistaxis, bleeding gums. There will be haemorrhages from bowels like charred straw, black particles. There will be a general relief by menstrual flow.
(ii) Crotalus horridus: Dark non-coagulating blood; haemorrhagic diathesis; retinal haemorrhages. Blood oozes from ears. There’ll be epistaxis where the blood will be black and stringy: persistent haemorrhages; intestinal haemorrhage; bloody urine; purpura haemorrhagica; bloody sweat.
(iii) Elaps corallinus: Epistaxis; Haemorrhages from lungs as black ink. Watery haemorrhage with pain in the apex of right lung. There will be cough with expectoration of black blood. Menstrual bleeding is black In typhoid fevers when ulcers have eaten into tissues, there’ll be the discharge of black blood.
(iv) Bothrops lanceolatus: Haemcirrhages from all orifices, b leading to hemiplegic aphasia and dysarthria; conjunctival and retinal haemorrage; bloody stools.
(v) Vipera berus-Persistent epistaxis; affects especially the veins

IV. Inflammations and fevers of low destructive type
Eg: gangrene, cellulitis, malignant ul cerations, diphtherIa and typhoid etc.
(i) Lachesis mutus; Septic states, diphtheria and other low forms of diseases with pro found prostration. There’ll be boils, carbuncles and ulcers with bluish purple surroundings; pyaemia, dissecting wounds,bedsore with black edges. bluish or blackish swellings.
(ii) Crotalus horridus: Low septic states; carbuncles; malignant scarlatina; yellow fever, plague, cholera etc. Boils, carbuncles and eruptions are surrounded by purplish, mottled skin, and oedema; lymphangitis; septicaemia.
(iii) Bothrops lanceolatus: Cold, swollen skin with haemorrhagic infiltrations; gangrene; lymphatics swollen; Anthrax; m erysipelas.
(iv) Vipera berus: Lymphangioma, boils, carbuncles with burning sensation, relieved by elevating parts Skin peels off in large plaques

(v).Nerves, specially affected by snake poisons
(I) Vagus nerve
(ii) Spinal accessory nerve ,so characteristically, one gets symptoms of larynx, respiration and heart.
Ophidia medicines cause choking constrictive sensation due to pneumogastric nerve irritation.
Weak heart, cold feet and trembling.
All the medicines have dyspnoea and cardiac symptoms2

VI. Yellow staining or colour of skin
Most marked in Crotalus horridus, less in Lachesis mutus and Vipera communis and Vipera torva.

VII. Action on heart-Produce palpitation, dyspnoea and valvular lesions.
(i) Naja tripudians: Heart rhythm is regular,. There’s a well marked frontal and temporal headache with the cardiac_symptoms. Patient is always gasping for breath.
(ii) Lachesis mutus: Indicated in the of rheumatic heart diseases. Palpitation with fainting spells especially during the clirnacteric period; Cyanosis.
(iii) Crotalus horridus: Palpitation,especially during menses. Heart’s actions feeble.
(iv) Vipera berus-Cardiac dropsy2

VIII. Appearance of face
Sickly, pale, anxious, bloated swollen, dark red or bluish, especially in Lachesis mutus, Bothrops lanceolatus, Vipera berus. The face is yellow in Lachesis mutus and Crotalus horridus.

IX . Alteration of spinal reflexes-
Dimness of vision, excitability of brain or spinal cord resulting in mental restless ness and physical sensitiveness
Torpidity, numbness twitching and formication.

X. Initial anxiety, mental excitability and over sensitiveness
Hallucinations and fear, followed by nervous depression which varies from debility to confusion, stupor, delirium and paralysis. 2

XI. Periodicity:
Vipera berus: Symptoms return annually for years
Thxicophis: Pain and fever return annually, sometimes changing location with disappearance of the first symp toms.
Lachesis mutus: Complaints, especially the intermittent fever, returning in every spring.

XII. Swelling
(i) Clotho arictans: Excessive swelling is the characteristic feature
(ii) Toxicophis: Oedematous swelling
(iii) Naja tripudians: No haemorrhage; only oedema.
XIII Climacteric ailments:
(1) Lachesis mutus: Haemorrhages, haemorrhoids; hot flushes, hot per spiration; burning in vertex, headache at or after menopause.
(ii) Crotalus horridus: Intense flushings and drenching perspiration. Profound anaemia. Prolonged metrorrhagia; dark offensive fluid; faintness and sinking at stomach.
(iii) Vipera berus: Climacteric ailments. 2

XIV. Mental Symptoms:
(i) Fear of rain: Elaps, Naja
(ii) Dreams of dead persons: Elaps, Cro talus horridus, Crotalus cascavella
(iii) Dreads to be left alone: Elaps, Naja

XV. Action on liver –
 Hepatomegaly and Jaundice
(i) Lachesis mutus- Liver regions sensitive. Can’t tolerate clothing around waist
(ii) Crotalus horridus- Haemolytic jaundice; yellow conjunctiva and skin
(iii) Vipera berus: Violent pain. Enlarged liver with jaundice and fever pains extend to shoulder and hip2

XVI. Sleep aggravation
(i) Lachesis mutus: As soon as the patient falls asleep, breathing stops
(ii) Crotalus horridus: Sleeps into his symptoms
(iii) Naja tripudians: Suffocative spells after sleeping

XVII. Dysarthria:
(i) Bothrops lanceolatus: Hemiplegia with aphasia; in ability to articulate without any affect tion to tongue.
(ii) Vipera berus: Speech is difficult
(iii) Naja tripudians: Blurred speech (bulbar paralysis) 2


  Spiders belong to the order Araneida, a member of a group of arachnids characterized by having six pairs of appendages, including four pairs of legs and two main body parts attached by a narrow stalk.

  Spiders are found all over the world in the deep seas, tall mountains, in forests, in deserts. So it is called a cosmopolitan creature. It can survive in every kind of terrain that is in air, water and on the ground wherever food is available. 1

  The Tarentula hispanica belongs to the species of wolf spider, lycosa. It is common in Italy, Spain and in southern part of Europe. The venomous nature of the tarentula has an unusual history. It received its name from the town Tarento, from where every year it migrates to the other parts.

 The first case of tarentism was reported in 1370. The symptoms appeared in every   part of the body varying from pain and swelling to the palpitation and vomiting with delirium followed by melancholis, depression and ending in death. 1


A few spiders are toxic to humans. The venom of the black widow spider and others of the Latrodectus genus acts as a painful nerve poison. The bite of brown recluse and others of the Loxosceles genus may cause localised tissue death. Other venomous spiders include the mygalomorph funnel weaver of southeastern Australia and some members of family Theraphosidae(Tarentula) of the south America. In north America, Cheiracanthium mildei is responsible for the site of the bite to become necrotic occasionally. 1


  1. Spider has eight legs surrounding the whole body and in constant motion; the patients are always restless.
  2. The spider captures its prey in a very cunning and deceptively woven web. The patients are cunning and deceptive in their behaviour.
  3. The action of the poison of the spider is very violent. The complaints of the patients are also violent.
  4. The male spider is known to dance during the mating season to attract the females. The patients desires to dance which relieves his complaints.1


1. Periodicity

  • Most of the spider remedies produce marked periodicity of complaints, so they are important remedies for intermittent ever
  • Tarentula hispanica – complaints recur at the same period annually or at the same hour every day or every other day
  • Tarentula cubensis – intermittent fever aggravated evening troubles occur at the same hour every day
  • Aranea diadema– chill occurring at same hour every day or every other day
  • Aranearum tela – periodical disease in broken down persons. Periodic headache with extreme nervous erythrism and obstinate intermittent 3

2- Side affinity

  • Aranea diadema – right sided (right trifascia) nerve and right chest)
  • Mygate lasi – right sided
  • Theridion curassivicum– left sided
  • Tarentula hispanica – left sided affections but many symptoms then alternate to right and then to back
  • Tarentula cubensis – left sided
  • Trombidium – left sided
  • Laterodectus mactans – left sided
  • Latrodactus kalipo-left sided3

3. Chilliness and coldness – Almost alt spider remedies are chilly or cold

  • Aranea diadema – great sensitiveness to cold or damp air. Extreme chilliness, chill as if bones are made of ice. Coldness  with pain in long bones , any amount of covering gives no warmth.
  • Aranearum tela- obstinate and continuous chillness with intermittent fever
  • Latrodectus mactans- chilliness with icy coldness of extremities, skin icy cold like marble even in fever
  • Tarentula-hispanica – chilly/yet desire for and is ameliorated in open  air


  • Aranea scinencia – intolerance of warm weather, all symptoms are aggravated in warm weather. Indolence, weakness and prostration
    Latrodectus mactans – severe prostration ,but patient cannot lie still due to restlessness
    Tarentula cubensis – easy and persistent prostration in septic conditions and diphtheria3
    • Sexual complaints like increased desire nymphomania and chordee
  • Tarentula hispanica- nymphomania and increased desire in both sexes.
  • Mygale- violent painful erection and chordee
  • Theridion curassavicum– sexual desire decreased, weak erection during coition, hysteria during puberty and climaxis
  • Later-kattpo- itching of prepuce
  • Aranea diadema- menses early, 3
  • Angina pectoris

Latrodectus mactans- violent pains in chest radiating to neck and shoulders and to left arm and ringers- Screams with pains as if
he will lose his breath and die
Tarentula hispanica- angina pectoris ameliorated in open air, constrictive feeling in chest

  • Chorea and convulsions.
  • Mygale lassidora-  twitching of fascial muscles with hot and flushed face. Constant motion of whole body, uncontrollable movements of hands and legs which stops only during sleep
  • Tarentula hispanica- violent involuntary movements of different parts of body, chorea of right arm and left leg
  • Tarentula cubensis – left sided chorea 3

7. Lymphangitis

  • Latrodectus hasseili- malignant conditions with pyeamia. Great edema of the neighbor hood of wound
  • Lafcero-kalipo -affected area is scarlet red with stinging and burning pains
  • Mygale lassidora – redness along the course of lymphatics with anxiety and twitching of limbs. Local inflammation from foot to knee
  • leaving large violet spot which changed hi a few hours to green, red to blue discoloration along the course of lymphatics
  • Tarentula hispanica – affects the lymphatic leading to congestion cellulites and lymphadenitis3
  • Sleep disorders – almost all spiders disturbs sleep except Aranea scinencia

and  Aranearum tela which has very much disposition to sleep

  • Aranea diadema – restlessness and frequent waking with sensation of enlargement and heaviness of arm as if arms and hands were enormously swollen
  • Latrodectus hasseltt – sleeplessness in malignant septic conditions ^ Tar cub- sleep prevented by harsh cough
  • Tarentula hispanica -sleeplessness awakens with weeping arid is cross
  • Theridion curassavicum– late sleep in morning; bites tongue in sleep3

9. Palpitation and changes in circulation: almost all spiders produces rapidity of pulse rate

  • Theridion- rapid pulse in morning
  • Mygaie- palpitation and rapid pulse
  • Latroductus mactans-  very rapid pulse 130-140/min too rapid to count and too thready to be felt especially in angina
  • Tarentula hisp- trembling and tremulousness of hearts from a bad news- Pulse hard and irregular

Exception – Aranearum teia – reduces pulse rate

  • Laterodactas katipo-almost pulse less/ very slow about 12-14/min3

11.Fear apprehension and anxiety- almost all spiders have great fear of death

Lat-mact – extreme anxiety, feels she will lose her reason and die,fear of death especially in -angina,
Lact kalipo–   Anxious and extreme pallor

  • Mygale- fear of death
  • Thendion- despondent want of self confidence, great inclination to be startled
  • Taren-hisp – fear when outside her usual surroundings. Fear of death and of impending calamity
  • Aranea diadema- fear of death3

12. Restlessness

  • Taren.hisp – never sits at one place, always in motion although motion does not relieve.
  • Lat.mact- restlessness and prostration with angina pectoris
  • Mygaie.lass- restlessness, constant motion of hands and feet.
  • Tarenbuia cub – restless feet
  • Therid- restless/ busy starts, desire to occupy himself3

13. Twitching of muscles and other nervous symptoms

  • Aranea diad-numbness of parts supplied by ulnar nerve
  • Aranea scinencia – constant twitching of tower eyelids
  • Aranearum tela- numbness of hands and legs
  • Lat-katipo – twitching of muscles ,nervous twitching all over with spasm of masseeter muscles
  • Tanhisp – twitching of muscles/ nerves highly strung restless and hyperesthesia of skin eye and fingertips
  • Theridion-hypersensitiveness, every shrill sound and reverberation penetrates the whole body especially teeth
  • Mygate- twitching and contraction of fascia. muscles » Scorpio-tetanus and strabismus
  • Lafc-haseltf- paralysis of lower limbs3

14. Depression and sadness – depression is a feature of many spider remedies.

  • Tar.hisp-depression with prostration. Melancholy with quick change of mood and becomes cheerful Longs for death
  • Mygate-sad alt day, depressed with anxious expression
  • Theridion – depression with headache and weep
  • Lat-katipo-nervous depression3

15. Septic conditions
Tarentula.cuben- malignant septic conditions/ carbuncles, boils/anthrax, abscess etc with atrocious burning pains. A good remedy for plague
Tat. hasseli _ septic states with pain and pyeamia

16- Amelioration by smoking
Aranea diad_ pain in right trifascial nerve is ameliorated by smoking in open air. Headache relieved by smoking in openair

Tarentcula.hisp – foxy cunning manipulative in nature, complaints more when somebody observes her. Feigns sickness airways in motion

18. Intercostals neuralgia
Aranea diadema – sever intractable pains along nerves aggravated  damp weather

and has marked periodicity

Theridion – pain in upper part of chest and apex of right lung with tendency to


19.1rritability, anger and excitement.

  • Tar.hisp – irritable and anger from contradiction
  • Mygale-excitement about business
  • Thehdion-excitement aggravated at night
  • Lat mactans-screams with excitement3

20.Affections of bones caries and necrosis

Theridion- caries and necrosis of bones. Pain In all bones as if broken
Aranea diadema – pain in tendoachilles, periostitis of os calcis, necrosis and

  • bones feels aand if made of ice3

21.Haemorrhagic tendency

Aranea diadema – haemoptysis in anemic subjects. Hemorrhage from uterus and lungs.
Latmactans – haemorrhage, black blood , non coagulable3


Hence, venom’s pharmaceutical properties have made it valuable both as pharmacological tools and as leads for drug development. It contains a huge variety of molecules affecting vital physiological systems, and these life-threatening toxins can be turned into a source of life-saving therapeutics.



2.     Mathew G, Snake remedies (ophidia) in homeopathy, [cited 2022 October 10], Available from:.,

  • Dr Rajitha K N, Homeopathy Medicines from Spiders (Arachinida), [Cited 2022 October 10], Available from:

About the authors

  1. Dr Shweta Patel, BHMS MD ( Organon of Medicine ), Professor- Department of Homoeopathic Pharmacy, Sumandeep Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital, SUMANDEEP VIDYAPEETH, Pipariya.
  2. Dr Srabani Pal, , BHMS MD ( Repertory ), Professor- Department of Anatomy, Sumandeep Homoeopathic Medical Collegeand Hospital, SUMANDEEP VIDYAPEETH, Pipariya.

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