KEY WORD: Obesity, Homoeopathic medicines, Management, Diet.
INTRODUCTION: Obesity and overweight are defined as abnormal or excessive fat buildup that is harmful to one’s health. The body mass index (BMI), which is equal to weight (in kg) /height (in meters square), is the most extensively used method for classifying weight status and disease risk. Overweight is defined as a BMI of 25 or higher, and obesity is defined as a BMI of 30 or higher. Obesity should not be characterized solely by body weight; as muscular people can be obese according to arbitrary standards without having increased adiposity. Obesity is a multi-factorial chronic condition that results from a genetic and environmental interaction. Adults who are overweight or obese and have a BMI of 25 or higher are considered to be at risk for heart diseases.
According to the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-5) 2019-20, the percentage of obese women increased to 24 per cent from 20.6 per cent in 2015-16, while the percentage for men rose to 22.9 per cent from 18.4 per cent four years earlier.
ETIOLOGY: Obesity can be caused by an increase in calorie intake and decrease in energy expenditure, or a combination of both. Environmental and genetic factors contribute to excessive body fat buildup; social and economic variables also play a role. Obesity has recently risen due to a combination of increased calorie intake and decreased physical exercise. Sleep deprivation and an unfriendly gut flora have also been proposed as possible causes for enhanced food assimilation due to dietary composition. Hypothalamic damage, hypothyroidism, Cushing’s syndrome, and hypogonadism are all secondary causes of obesity. Anti-diabetes medications (insulin, sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones), glucocorticoids, psychotropic compounds, mood stabilizers (lithium), antidepressants (tricyclics, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, paroxetine, mirtazapine), or antiepileptic drugs (valproate, gabapentin) are all known to cause weight gain.
CLASSIFICATION OF OBESITY: As per BMI (body mass index) obesity are classified into following headings-
*Healthy weight 18.5–24.9 (Normal)
*Overweight 25.0–29.9 Increased
*Obesity 30.0–34.9 I High
*Obesity 35.0–39.9 II Very high
*Extreme obesity ≥40 III Extremely high.
COMPLICATION OF OBESITY:
Various complications are seen due to obesity which are as follows:
Ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, and high blood pressure are all examples of cardiological disorders.
Diabetes mellitus, polycystic ovarian disease, infertility, birth abnormalities, and intrauterine foetal mortality are all examples of endocrinological and reproductive system disorders.
Obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome are two respiratory conditions.
Poor mobility, osteoarthritis, low back pain, and gout are all symptoms of musculoskeletal system.
Stroke, migraines, carpal tunnel syndrome, dementia, and idiopathic intracranial hypertension are all neurological conditions. Multiple sclerosis is a disease that affects a large number of people.
Depression, social stigma are psychosocial conditions.
HOMOEOPATHIC ASPECT: Homoeopathy has a lot of potential in the treatment of obesity as it is based on concept of DYNAMISM, INDIVIDUALISTIC, AND HOLISTIC philosophy. Homoeopathic philosophy holds that, while an organ may appear to be diseased, the individual as a whole is ill. In addition, the homoeopathic method believes that the body is a constitution that must be treated as a whole. Age, gender, genetic variables, physical inactivity, socioeconomic level, eating habits, psychosocial factors, familial inclination, endocrine factors, alcohol, education, smoking, ethnicity and drugs are all essential contributors in the development of obesity. These must also be dealt with according to master Hahnemann’s instructions “….as well as the most critical points in the entire history of the chronic disease, in order for him to find its basic cause, which is generally owing to miasm. The patient’s ascertainable bodily constitution (especially when the ailment is chronic), moral and intellectual character, occupation, manner of living and habits, social and family relations, age, sexual function, and other factors are all considered. “The most appropriate regimen during the use of medicine in chronic diseases consists in removing such barriers to recovery and providing the opposite when necessary. innocent moral and intellectual recreation, active exercise in the open air in almost all kinds of weather (daily walks, light manual labour), suitable, nutritious, nonmedicinal food and drink, and so on.”
“Thus, in the case of patients with chronic diseases, comprehensive inquiry into such obstacles to cure is all the more important, because their diseases are frequently aggravated by such noxious influences and other disease-causing faults in the food and regimen, which often go unrecognized.”
As per Dr H. A. Roberts –“There is little doubt that the majority of cases of over-and under-development of tissues or organs such as adiposis, obesity, inhibition of or precocious development of sex characteristics (whether traceable to the pineal, pituitary or thyroid glands or the gonads), and changes in the skeleton formation such as may come from dysfunction of the parathyroid, in the language of Hahnemann, manifestations of the miasms, either inherited or acquired. It may be circumstantial evidence for the miasm theory that certain types of manifestations are found among certain peoples.
MANAGEMENT OF OBESITY:
Dietary Management-Diet Control- A well-balanced diet should be provided, with enough protein but low carbohydrate and fat content. Alcohol should be moderately used.
Physical exercise: It is necessary to promote physical activity.
Interventions in behavior and psychological counselling.
Medicinal management: Calcarea carbonicum, Phytolacca berry, Graphites, Thyroidinum, Antimonium crudum, Fucus vesiculosus, Capsicum, Natrum muriaticum, Lycopodium, Ignatia amara, Ferrum metallicum, Ammonium muriaticum, phosphorous are some of the most commonly given homoeopathic medicines for obesity.
Calcarea carbonicum: Calcarea carbonica is particularly effective in overweight and fatty, flabby people who have a pale complexion, sweat a lot, and are cold and damp most of the time. These people have a sour taste in their mouth all of the time. This medication is especially beneficial for overweight children with a pale complexion and a huge bellies.
Phytolacca berry: Patients with difficulties walking, sitting, palpitation, dyspnoea with minimal exertion, nausea, and eructations should take this supplement. Thyroid dysfunction causes obesity. It primarily affects glands. There was a lot of fatigue and a lot of prostration. Obesity with rheumatoid arthritis.
Graphites: Obesity in females with delayed menstruation. Indicated for fair, fat, chilly, constipated people who have skin trouble. Obesity due to hormonal imbalance at menopause
Thyroidinum: In excessive obesity, it acts better in pale patients than those of dark color.
Antimonium crudum: Children and young person with tendency to grow fat with coated moist white tongue. The subject needing this remedy may belch a great deal, and the eructation may taste of the ingesta, Tendency to grow fat associated with gastric ailments. Gout with gastric symptoms
Fucus vesiculosus: Obesity due to non-toxic goitre, as well as exophthalmic goiter.
Capsicum: Cayenne pepper is good for people who have loose, flabby muscles and lack of energy.
Natrum muriaticum: Natrum mur is another important medicine for weight loss. This medicine recommended when there is an overabundance of fat in the thighs and gluteal region compared to other portions of the body. This drug works well for people who have acquired weight as a result of long-term grief.
Lycopodium: Lycopodium is one of the most effective homoeopathic fat-burning medicines. Like the above-mentioned drug Natrum Mur, this is mostly utilised when the thighs and gluteal region contain extra fat. However, the constitutional symptoms that are peculiar to Lycopodium use distinguish these two. Patients who require Lycopodium are those who have been suffering from gastric problems such as flatulence and constipation for a long time. They have craving for sweets. They also enjoy warm drinks and food. They have a proclivity for overeating, resulting in a bloated abdomen and increase in weight. Mentally, the individual who requires this medication is impatient and easily angered, especially when they are contradicted.
Ignatia amara: When changeable mood, introspective, silently, brooding, melancholic, sad, tearful is the cause of weight gain, Ignatia works well to help an overweight person to lose weight.
Ferrum metallicum: Obesity with anaemia, bloated face, and paleness. Best suited to young, frail people who are anaemic and chlorotic, have pseudo-plethora, blush easily, have cold extremities, and show signs of weakness even when speaking or walking. Skin, mucous membranes, and face are all pale.
Ammonium muriaticum: This Homeopathic medicine for weight loss is particularly effective for those who are overweight and lethargic, with huge deposition of fat in gluteal region and around the abdomen and thin legs.
Phosphorus: People with waxy, translucent skin, who are anaemic, who are growing too quickly, who are fair and blonde, and who have a hemorrhagic diathesis. It has an impact on the nutrition and function of all body tissues. It produces muscular pseudohypertrophy.
Dr. DHARMENDRA PATEL, PG SCHOLAR, Dept of Organon of Medicine and Homoeopathic philosophy, GHMC&H, Bhopal, M.P.