Menstruation usually commence in young girls between the ages of 12 and 14 and often considers with the development of secondary sexual characteristics (breast enlargement and pubic hair growth ) two hormones , oestrogen and progesterone control the course of the menstrual cycle which allows the lining of the womb (uterus ) to thicken in preparation for the egg (if fertilized )to be embedded and then nurtured during pregnancy . the egg is released between day 10 and day 14 of the cycle and if fertilized by the sperm will travel down through the fallopian tube and reach the cavity of the uterus . if the egg is not fertilized then the lining of the womb sloughs and the period or menstrual flow occurs . it usually lasts any thing from 3 to 7 days . disorders of menstruation are not uncommon and about 3% of all visits to general practitioners relate to a menstrual problem . these can be amenorrhoea (lack of periods ) menorrhagia (excessive or too frequent bleeding )and pre menstrual tension (PMT-excessive or abnormal response to hormonal changes ) other concerns may include irregular bleeding ,spotting between periods or post –menopausal bleeding (intermittent bleeding following the menopause .AMENORRHOEA :the most common cause is pregnancy and this has to be excluded in all causes . this may also occur while taking the oral contraceptive pill or when the pill is discontinued . a common cause is breast feeding , this is a normal occurrence . severe illness , frequent travel and severe dieting may also cause the periods to stop . stress is another factor and it is not uncommon before academic examinations
DYSMENORRHOEA :A certain amount of pain is a normal consequence of menstrual bleeding . periods with no pain usually suggest that the egg has not been released . a frequent condition at the beginning of a woman’s reproductive life . severe pain (low back , abdominal or pelvic )can accompany a condition called endometriosis , where a small piece of the lining of the womb may lie out side ,the womb itself or chronic pelvic infections
MENORRHAGIA AND DYSFUNCTIONAL UTERINE BLEEDING: these conditions are commonly caused by hormonal imbalance but may indicate pelvic infection or the presence of fibroids (small gristly growths in the wall of uterus ) heavy bleeding may also be caused by a late and missed abortion .
PRE MENSTRUAL TENSION 🙁 PMT) this is probably problem and is usually the result of hormonal changes affecting the body metabolism leading to fluid retention . it can be an hereditary condition but is also affected by stress and psychological disorders
AMENORRHOEA : absence or stoppage of periods usually for up to 3 months . occasionally very slight and scanty periods .
DYSMENORRHOEA : this may be spasmodic in type and be of very severe intensity for one or two days at the beginning of the period . it may cause severe distress ,loss of work . the more common kind lasts through the period , is often associated with low back pain and is less severe , sometimes the pain may cause vomiting and fainting ,
MENORRHAGIA :heavy periods with clots requiring several tampons or pads through out the day . occasional flooding which is not controlled by pads . this may be accompanied by tiredness and anemia .
PREMENSTRUAL TENSION SYNDROME : moodiness, irritability , depression, low self esteem , head aches , painful enlarged breasts , gain in weight , swollen ankles , head aches , changes in appetite , loss of libido , increase in arguments and bizarre behavior (shop lifting , car accidents , and violent out bursts ) have all been associated with PMT and are most commonly experienced 3 to 7 days before the period is due ,symptoms usually disappear once the period starts
SELF HELP FOR PMT :PMT although a harmless condition can be a major problem for many women and needs to be taken seriously and treated sympathetically
keep a chart of your periods together with a list of your symptoms check your diet avoid or stop consuming sugar containing food , caffeine, alcohol , salt and eat lots of fresh fruit and salads , some naturopaths suggest a fluid –only fast (herbal teas , dilute juices , natural water )for two days before your symptoms of PMT are due to start .
supplements have been found to help some women , especially vitamin B4 (10 mg 3 times a day for 7 days ) vitamin C (500 mg daily ) zinc (5 mg daily )and magnesium (one tablet a day )if these are taken for one week before the period starts , they may help .
regular exercise , cold showers and relaxation techniques will all help to reduce the symptom . if you have skin symptoms associated with PMT (greasy skin spots ) a vitamin E supplement (one tablet a day for eight weeks ) will also help.
DELAYED OR ABSENT PERIODS : there may be several causes of these conditions . primary amenorrhoea (the non appearance of the period at puberty )is usually due to a hormone or endocrine chemical imbalance or to being under weight . secondary amenorrhoea (the disappearance of periods ) is commonly due to pregnancy ,anorexia nervosa , stress, anemia , endometriosis , poly cystic ovaries , starting oral contraception or thyroid hormone deficiency . If you are a very fit athlete , your periods may not start , or they may cease . either way , you should ensure that your diet is adequate and that you are getting enough calcium . there are other less common causes of delayed periods , so if in doubt about what is the cause , seek your doctor’s advice
Feels the cold and suffers from throbbing . suddenly occurring head aches , sensation of fullness in the pelvis with a bearing-down sensation ,urination may be pain full –BELLADONNA The first period is late to commence , subsequent periods may occur erratically affects those with a fair complexion and a tendency to perspire easily about the head –CALCAREA CARB. The first period arrives late , once the period commences it flows by fits and starts and subsequent periods are very irregular . the cycle is irregular and often lengthened . especially after a soaking or during emotional stress , blood flow may be intermittent –PULSATILLA.
After a delayed start to the period there is very little loss of blood . can be prone to tiredness and have a dark complexion and delicate skin . A tendency to depression and moodiness . generally better after exertion . Instead of the period a vaginal discharge may occur at the time that it is due –SEPIA.
A tendency to long cycles , the first period may be late , blood loss is pale and scanty –GRAPHITES . Often run-down and tired out , prone to palpitations and the ankles can become swollen and puffy , flushed complexion and pale and livid with blue margins about the eyes –FERRUM METALICUM .
IRREGULAR PERIODS : The periods are often irregular at the start of the puberty , when approaching the menopause and after lactation , this is not abnormal , it is merely an indication of the hormonal changes associated with the particular time of life or condition . in some women , however , the periods never become totally regular
Pain full irregular periods with a heavy vaginal discharge between periods –“calcarea silicata”
Late to start ,the period stops during the night but restarts again the next day –“causticum” A delay in the arrival of the period associated with emotional upsets in a very sympathetic type of woman –“causticum”
Pain immediately before the period starts , profuse , dark period with pain that is felt across the pelvic and in the back , skin complaints become worse at the time of the period –“cimicifuga “ .The period once established become irregular and delayed . obstinate constipation is a frequent problem . complexion is sallow and frequent . severe head aches may occur –“graphites “ delay in start of the periods associated with frequent chest infections –“kali carbonicum “ period is very slow to start ,a delay in the onset of the first period in girls who have a clear vaginal discharge which comes on regularly and instead of a normal period can help those who feel very tired –“sepia “ Irregular , profuse periods , vagina is dry and there is an acrid , watery vaginal discharge . a severe head ache develops after the period has finished –“natrum muriaticum “ period is always is irregular with lower back pain and a desire to deficate , loss of blood is very dark almost black.—“nux vomica”
HEAVY PERIODS : the average blood loss in a period is 30 ml and it is not considered a medical problem and it reaches 80 ml . so the best definition of a heavy period is when it interferes with daily life . there are several causes of heavy bleeding in period time . Fibroids (non cancerous growth in the uterus ) polyps , endometriosis the time just prior to the menopause or a hormonal imbalance may be to blame . excessive blood loss each month , may lead to anemia , heavy vaginal bleeding can signify more serious condition so if it occurs each month consult a doctor . early profuse period with pain similar to that experienced in early labor . extreme fatigue accompanies period . periods accompanied by indigestion and constipation. –“aletris farinose “
Bearing down sensations , which are worse lying down –profuse , early , bright red periods. Cramp-like back pain and cutting pelvic pain –“belladonna “
Profuse irregular long lasting periods ,feet feel cold and damp –“calcarea carbonica
Bering down pain that goes into the thighs , flooding occurs –“calcarea flourica “
Black , early , profuse periods occur . bladder irritation –“cantharis “
Heavy periods occurring too frequently , spasmodic pain accompanies period –“caulophyllum “
Early profuse periods with back ache that moves and muscle ache , gloom and dejection accompany period –“cimicifuga “
Early profuse , long lasting periods , body itches during period back avhe accompanies periods –“kali carbonicum “
Abdominal bloating occurs before periods ,head ache and tinnifus accompany periods dragging back pain that is relieved by motion . an acrid , irritating discharge between periods –“kreosotum “
Early heavy period , accompanied by morning , nausea and chilliness –“nux vomica
Dark thick blod loss that happens chiefly at night – “mag.carbonica “
Profuse , early ,clotted flow great irritation of the genitalia uterine bearing-down sensation , heavy periods that occur especially in haughty , melancholic women—“platina “
The most common cause of this relatively unimportant condition is the contraceptive pill . however , it can also occur at one of the three female milestone ;adolescence , following pregnancy and around the menopause . again , at these times it is of little importance , but it can be sometimes be an indication of other illness . if you feel anything but well , consult a doctor .
SYMPTOMS / MEDICINE
Irregular periods , an acrid , watery vaginal discharge is experienced , a severe head ache develops after the period has finished , feelings of nervousness and tension—“natrum muriaticum “
Moody and changeable , cries a lot and also requires a lot of sympathy . symptoms are much improved out of doors –“pulsatilla “
A sensation as if the contents of the pelvis are about to drop out—may feel cold , totally weary and tired , dislike their family , be irritable and feel very sad , but will liven up with exercise and movements –“sepia “
PAINFUL PERIODS (DYSMENORRHOEA )
The pain is largely felt in the back and lower abdomen and can often be made worse by mental anxiety . usually coming on a year or two after the start of puberty . there is known cause , although it is thought that it may be due to a tight cervix (neck of the womb ) the pain usually starts just before or at the start of the period and lasts for about eight to ten hours before it starts to diminish . if the pain is severe and / or recurrent see your doctor .
Pain comes on before period begins . A sensation of bearing down , which is worse when lying down , but relieved by standing , period is profuse and comes early . bright red hot blood loss there may be an accompanying cutting pain which goes through the pelvis horizontally . period starts and ends quickly , unable to bear any kind of jarring —“belladonna “
spasmodic , intermittent bearing –down pains in the groin and some times even in the chest and limbs normal or scanty flow of blood —“caulophyllum “
dark clotted and profuse blood flow , pain is intense and spasmodic , excessive irritability and impatience –“chamomilla “
pain shoots across the pelvis from side to side and down to the thighs . pain starts just before period commences . during the period , sharp abdominal pains causing doubling up . head ache develops before beginning of the period —“cimicifuga “
occasional shooting pains felt in the ovaries . a violent bearing down sensation ends in intense cramp which is felt in the uterus –“viburnum opulus “
severe left sided lower abdominal pain and pain from navel to the genital region , pain helped by bending double –“colocynthis “
cramp-like pains start before period commences and will continue through out . great relief obtained from warmth ,by bending double and from pressure . pain is worsened by motion —“magnesia phosphorica “
period is delayed , blood flow is dark in color and intermittent . the more pain , the chiller the woman feels pain seems to move about causing doubling up and then causing restlessness and tears –“pulsatilla “
profuse bright loss of blood . pain extends into the thighs , may feel extremely cold with a cold sweat . faints from exertion , sexual interest is greatly increased just before period –“Sabina “
flow is dark and profuse , spasmodic , colicky pains, feels weak and tired . a lot of wind . pain is worse at night and may wake the women up –“cocculus “