The periodic table gives a new approach to understand the characteristic symptoms of homoeopathic remedies. Dr Jan Scholten gave a great contribution to the development of homoeopathy with the understanding of theme or constitution of the elements of periodic table. The author is intending to work on the theme of halogen group of remedies to the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children.
KEYWORDS: periodic table, halogen group, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
ABBREVATION: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders V (DSM V)
Simillimum based prescription is necessary to bring the cure. Finding simillimum is not an easy task. This can be made easy by knowing the theme of the elements of the periodic table. The plant root emerges through the rock to find new life, likewise the periodic table emerges to break through the case and find its simillimum. Periodic table provides a way to collect the group of remedies in our mind by assessing the theme. Narrowing down from a largest group of medicines to the smallest group of medicines is the significance of the periodic table analysis. There are many other ways to find out simillimum, this is one among them.
A. HALOGEN GROUP OF REMEDIES
In the table of elements there are 18 stages or groups and 7 rows or series. The halogen belong to the group 17 of periodic table and are characterised by an s2p5. Group 17 occupies the second column from the right in the periodic table and contains fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), astatine (At). At 25oC, fluorine and chlorine are gases, bromine is a liquid and iodine is a salt. The properties of halogen are just similar to each other1.
They were given the name halogen, from the greek roots hal- (“salt”) and -gen (“to produce”), because they all produce sodium salts of similar properties2.
Facts of halogen
Halogen has great reactivity, the free halogen elements are not found in nature. In combined form, fluorine is the most abundant of the halogens in earth’s crust. The percentages of the halogens in the igneous rocks of earth’s crust are 0.06 fluorine, 0.031 chlorine, 0.00016 bromine, and 0.00003iodine. Astatine does not occur in nature, because they are short-lived3.
Properties of halogen
- The chemical properties are more uniform.
- Halogens have very high electronegativities.
- The halogens are particularly reactive with the alkali and alkaline earth metals, forming stable ionic crystals. Halogens are salt formers.
- The lightest halogen is fluorine and the heaviest is the astatine3.
B. ATTENTION DEFECIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (ADHD)
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a neuro developmental disorder characterized by persistent hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention that significantly impairs educational achievements or social functioning.4 ADHD is the most common neurobehavioural disorder of childhood, one of the most prevalent chronic health conditions affecting school aged children, and the most extensively studied mental disorder of childhood5.
The first example of a disorder that appears to be similar to ADHD was given by Sir Alexander Crichton in 1791. In 1798, he published, “An inquiry into the nature and origin of mental derangement: comprehending a concise system of the physiology and pathology of the human mind and a history of the passions and their effects’’. He gave his lectures to the Royal Academy of Physicians. He described a case series of 40 children presenting with problems of over activity, inattention and deficits in ‘volitional inhibition’. The condition which we now refer to as ADHD was first included in the second edition of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM) in 1968 and labelled ‘hyperkinetic disorder of childhood.’
Use of cigarettes and alcohol in pregnancy, brain trauma during pregnancy, preterm birth, nutritional deficiency of magnesium, vitamin B6, zinc, essential fatty acids and also familial tendency increases the risk of developing ADHD6.
- Inattention (trouble paying attention).
- Impulsivity (acting before thinking).
- Hyperactivity (trouble sitting still for even a short time)7.
- Behavioural difficulties, poor school achievement and or learning difficulties.
- Poor relationships, low self-esteem.
- Moody, restlessness, forgetfulness, day dreams7
Diagnostic criteria :
As per given in DSM V, The American Psychiatric Association published DSM-V, the first major revision to the diagnostic manual for psychiatric disorders since 1994. In DSM-V, ADHD is included in the section on neurodevelopment disorder.8
C. PERFINITY OF HALOGEN GROUP OF REMEDY TO ADHD
Perfinity means the similarity in one field working “through” (per) in another field. Likewise halogen group of remedies will have similarity to ADHD.
Halogen has got 7 electrons in their outer orbit. They do not occur free, but are found in combined state. They require one electron to complete their outer orbit and become stable; hence they are trying to get one electron, an unbounded energy produced due to fast metabolic process3. This over flowing energy is similar to the ADHD patient’s energy. ADHD patients has tremendous energy, hence they are very hyperactive in nature. In the symptoms of hyperactivity, there is tremendous loss of energy. Hyperactivity is found at mental as well as physical level. ADHD patient often fidgets with hand or feet, squirms in their seat, can never sit quiet and often talks excessively9.
At the same time, restlessness in the halogen group is due to its unstable nature. Energy is driven off during restlessness3. Restlessness is the main symptoms of ADHD patient. ADHD patients often runs about, jumps or claims excessively in situations which are inappropriate9.
Halogen group protrays anxiety in an attempt to become the stable electron. This anxiety presents on ADHD patient. His anxiety manifests into his dreams in the form of nightmares, of falling, death, drowning, etc9.
Due to instability of the halogens, it turns out to be irritable3. This irritability seen in ADHD patient, leads to impulsivity. Patient often blurts out answers before the questions have been completed, often interrupts or intrudes on others. They don’t like to be questioned or reprimanded, finds excuses or escape routes and often experiences difficulty awaiting his or her turn. Impulsivity leads to violent activity and destructive tendency9.
Tremendous release of energy in unstable electrons can be interpreted as lose of energy in ADHD patients which is due to hyperactivity and can, in turn, cause inattention. ADHD patient has difficulty in sustaining attention in tasks or play activities, fails to give attention to details, or makes careless mistakes in school work, work or other activities, doesn’t seem to listen when spoken to directly, often avoids, dislikes, or is reluctant to engage in tasks that requires sustained mental effort, easily distracted by extraneous stimuli and often forgetful in daily activities, etc9.
D. HALOGEN GROUP OF MEDICINES INDICATING ADHD SYMPTOMS10, 11.
Uncommon buoyancy of mind: fears nothing and is self satisfied. Disposition to be exceedingly anxious, causing perspiration. Forgetfulness of dates.
Vivid dreams, with sense of impending danger. Unrefreshing sleep.
Disposition to weep easily, but consolation from others aggravates. During sleep, many fears and anxieties surface up, leading to sleeplessness, night mares, and dreams. Aggressive behaviour in children due to lack of love. Extreme sensitivity. Projected anger in the form of irritability, impulsiveness and impetuousness. Child’s emotional trauma is expressed by delusion that he looked wretched when he sees his face in the mirror. Difficulty in calculations. Mild and sentimental children.
Great anxiety, environment and surroundings; strange; everything is strange, anger (see irritability and quarrelsome), irritability, Impaired thinking; difficulty concentrating,
Exhausted, apathetic, listless. Anxiety and excitement, with increased heart beat. Depressed. Restlessness increased to anxiety; startled by every step on the stair or knock on the door. Disinclination to work. Irritable, depressed. Weakness and stupidity.
Apprehension. Irritability, inclined to anger. Forgets names and persons. Effects of excitement. Coma, fainting with cold, viscous sweats.
Melancholic, idiocy, and insanity. Constantly hears voices. Hurried and excited, walking up and down the room conversing with imaginary beings.
Wild excitement, followed by complete insensibility. Obscene language used. Desire to kill.
Liveliness, ill-humour, anxious, tension in precordial region, > nose-bleed. Feels dreadfully dull and stupid. Apathy; in evening, with sadness, chilliness and disgust of life.
Irritability, Unable to study, difficult in concentration.
Excitement interrupted by broken sleep, Excitement, melancholia, hallucinations of sight and hearing. Screams out, leaves her bed but falls down after walking a few steps, talk’s nonsense unconnectedly, is unable to hold anything, sees everything double. Talkativeness excessive; fear of death with anguish.
Lachrymose disposition and mental dejection. Melancholy, Hypochondriasis, sadness, anxiety. Fear, Anxious apprehensions. Restless agitation (with inclination to move about), which will neither permit the patient to remain seated, nor to sleep. Irresistible impulse to run.
Nervous restlessness. Cannot sit still, must move around or keep occupied. Night terrors in children who see horrible visions awake shrieking and recognising no one. The child constantly imagines that he is singled out as an object of divine wrath. Answers in mono syllable. Sometimes for all questions ‘no’ is the only answer. Anxiety at night especially in dentition age group. Fidgetiness constantly plays with fingers and hands. Omits or reverses words when talking and writing.
Apprehensive, depression, hardly able to move about. Fear of being alone; of the dark; wants to have someone near. Irritable, cross, easily vexed. Mind cloudy and unable to think clearly, stupidity.
ADHD is one of the leading causes of poor school performance. The child fails to achieve school grades commiserating with his intelligence because of these inattention and hyperactivity. In modern medicine ADHD is treated with stimulant drugs such as ritalin, oral anti hypertensive and anti depressant. While these medications can at times be effective, if carefully monitored, side effects are possible, and most of these drugs should not be given to children under 6 years because of risk of toxicity or lack of dosage information due to inadequate testing for adverse drug reaction. Homoeopathy treats ADHD disorder in an effective way. Halogen group remedy plays a major role in treating ADHD. Whenenvision the society, one can realise that every individual possesses the academic, the social and the emotional skills needed to succeed in school, at work and in life.
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