The periodic table of elements has a significant homoeopathic relevance. Each series in periodic table signifies a peculiar characteristic. Ferrum series is a picture of an everyday man, with his daily issues and problems in his routine tasks and job. Hence, this series is all about developing skills to perform his task and make his living secure. The main motive of this article is to give an understanding about few important characteristics common to row 4 and compare them. Observing the evolution of remedies from left to right in periodic table.
Keywords: mineral kingdom, periodic table, ferrum series, row 4, homoeopathy.
Abbreviations: Kalium (K), calcium (Ca), scandium (Sc), titanium (Ti), vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), manganum (Mn), ferrum (Fe), cobaltum (Co), nicolum (Ni), copper (Cu), zincum (Zn), gallium (Ga), germanium (Ge), arsenicum (As), selenium (Se), bromine (Br), krypton (Kr).
Although homoeopathy is gaining popularity among the public, many practitioners find it difficult to arrive to a simillimum. There is abundant substance in the nature and hence proving it entirely is next to impossible. Homoeopathy would be elevated if every group or family under each kingdom had a peculiar characteristic of its own. 
The first periodic table was created by Dmitri Mendeleev in 1869. This periodic table continued to evolve with the progress of science. The use of periodic table in homoeopathy has serves as an essential tool in finding the most appropriate remedy. Dr Jan Scholten contributed in understanding the homoeopathic constitution of each element using the periodic table. Later, Dr Rajan Sankaran gave a deeper insight into it. 
The periodic table constitute of 7 rows (series) and 18 columns (stages). Each of this have a peculiar common theme. The periodic table of elements has a significant homoeopathic relevance. Many homoeopaths throughout the world have independently verified Jan Scholten’s element theory of ‘series’ and ‘stages’. 
Today’s generation is more focused on securing their life and are more practical. They are task-oriented and judge themselves with respect to their performance outcome and duties they perform to secure their life and family.
Table: Remedies in ferrum series
Ferrum series is more concerned with the security and task. They talk more about their stability, relationships, finance, etc. There is a feeling of fulfilling their task at their best. In this row, the person has his own identity and now he is beginning to develop skills to secure his life with respect to family, relationships and money. They have their own choice but they are rational. Right and wrong is very important. 
KALIUM: Alkali metal. Totally dependent for security due to their incapability. They cannot be independent. Affects musculoskeletal system. Weakness of muscles, heart, back, limbs. Weakness is main feature of all potassium salts.  Malarial miasm.
CALCIUM: Alkali earth metal. They need support and protection in the situation of threat. They have lot of anxiety and fear to take up any task without a guidance. Calcium gives rise to defective nutrition of bones, glands, blood and skin.  Ringworm miasm.
SCANDIUM: Transitional metal. Doubtful about their abilities. Double minded and confused.  Ringworm miasm.
TITANIUM: Transitional metal. They begin to protect themselves but are inadequate. It is found in bones and muscles. It is used in lupus, hemiopia and premature ejaculations. Ringworm miasm.
VANADIUM: Transitional Metal. Alternates between whether they are capable or no. Lack of self-confidence. Concerned about their success. Vanadium acts as an oxygen carrier and catalyser, hence used in wasting diseases. It is a remedy for degenerative condition of liver and arteries – fatty degeneration of heart and liver.   Ringworm miasm.
CHROMIUM: Transitional metal. Their security is developed. They take up the challenges on their own but are uncertain of the result. It removes cancerous growth without pain or without the use of knife.  Ringworm miasm.
MANGANUM: Transitional metal. They know their capabilities. Apprehension, anxiety and restlessness and become perfectly well while lying down. Main sphere of action is on the periosteum, joints, ankles, shin bone, heel, and inner ear. Very sensitive bones with diagonal pains. Ringworm miasm.
FERRUM: Transitional metal. They are capable as well as secure. Persistent in performing their duty and tasks despite of difficulties and oppositions. They are obstinate, headstrong and determined. They are firm in their decision. Action on vasomotor system and blood circulation. Ringworm miasm.
COLBALTUM: Transitional metal. They are doubtful about their protection. There is a guilt of self-mistake and wrong decisions but accepts it. Delusion that he is criminal and others know about it. It affects the lumbar spine, genitals, kidneys and bones. It is useful for neurasthenic state of spinal origin with sexual disturbances. Ringworm miasm.
NICOLUM: Transitional metal. Successful in both security and protection. Egotism and superiority. Fight for others like a policeman and protect the weaker. Best for literary men who suffer from periodical nervous headaches, weakness, asthenopia, constipation, which is aggravated in morning on waking.  Ringworm miasm.
CUPRUM: Transitional metal. There is a need to maintain the success of security and protection. Need to be ready to defend sudden oppositions. Shuns everybody approaching them. It is an anti-psoric remedy affecting nerves of cerebrospinal axis and muscles causing spasmodic effect after suppression of eruptions and discharges.  Ringworm miasm.
ZINCUM: Transitional Metal. Constant attack to their position of security and protection. Thinks of death calmly. Therefore they are alert. Affects brain and nerves which are fagged. Tissues are worn out. Indicated in brain paralysis and spinal affections.  Ringworm Miasm.
GALLIUM: Metal. Unavoidable loss of protection and security. Hence, they postpone the task to prevent loss. They stubbornly hold on to old ideas and not ready for new ideas, especially the younger generation who has adapted newer ideas. This gives them a sense of insecurity. Clinically used for paralysis, anaemia, cancer.  Sycotic miasm.
GERMANIUM: Metaloid. They try to preserve their security but fails to face the opposition. They are afraid of being held responsible for their behaviour. They are afraid of making mistakes. They are too tired to do anything more. Useful in cancer and diabetes. Cancer miasm.
ARSENICUM: Metaloid. They are weak to defend and protect those things left with them. They ate dependent on others for support. Arsenic is the remedy for the effect of feats of prolonged endurance. It affects all the tissues and organs, especially the mucous membranes, blood, nerves, muscles, serous cavity. Cancer miasm.
SELENIUM: Non-metal. Complete loss of capacity and energy. No support and protection. It is a constituent of bone and teeth. It affect nerves of genito-urinary organs and supraorbital region. Tubercular miasm.
BROMINE: Halogen. Totally insecure. Completely alone to face danger or oppositions. They want to cut off from their task. It affects the glands causing induration and respiratory tract especially larynx and trachea. Leprosy miasm.
KRYPTON: Nobel gas. They are contended. There is complete absence of security. Syphilitic miasm.
The rows and columns show stages of beginning, aiming, reaching the peak and declining as experiences in our lives. When there is a conflict related to a particular stage of life, there develops physical symptom or pathology.
The common characteristic marked in the ferrum series is that of performing task to secure and protect themselves from the external oppositions. There is anxiety, apprehension, restlessness, fidgetiness. The main sphere of action of the remedies in this series is circulation and musculoskeletal system. The column from left towards the middle of the table were progressive states going to peak performance followed by progressive decline in performance represented by remedies as we go to the right side of the table. As we go from left to right in periodic table – security starts developing, the middle columns show complete security and towards right starts falling down to become insecure. Same is with dependency. In the beginning, due to incapability and doubts, they are dependent, the middle of the column shows independence and then towards right again needs support as they start losing their ability to maintain the position. It is also observed that the miasm deepens as we go from left to right in the periodic table.
A remedy from row 4 is chosen not on the basis of performing task, but it is selected on the basis of complaints coming up due to conflicts related to the performance.
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ABOUT THE AUTHORS
1. Dr Sneha Subhash
MD (Hom) Scholar, Department of Materia Medica, Sarada Krishna Homoeopathic Medical College, Kulasekharam, Kanniyakumari District, Tamilnadu Dr. M.G.R. University, Chennai, India.
2. Dr C.R. Krishnakumari Amma MD(Hom)
Professor and Head, Department of Materia Medica, Sarada Krishna Homoeopathic Medical College, Kulasekharam, Kanniyakumari District, Tamilnadu Dr. M.G.R. University, Chennai, India.