Dysmenorrhoea ,also known as painful periods or menstrual cramps,pain during menstruation. Dysmenorrhoea is a term describing painful menstruation that typically involves cramps caused by uterine contractions.Sharp ,intermittent pain or dull aching pain in the pelvis or lower abdomen.Pain may radiate into the lower back and inner aspects of thighs.From the prospective of certain journals,the goal was to determine the impact of homoeopathic management in Dysmenorrhoea.
KEYWORDS- Dysmenorrhea, Homoeopathy, menstrual cramps.
It is a most common menstrual symptoms.It is estimated that incidence of primary Dysmenorrhoea is 40-50 % in reproductive age group.Highest in adolescent upto 90%,it decreases with increasing ageGlobally ,50-90% of women of reproductive age experience painful menses .It was observe that many females are suffering from Dysmenorrhoea but they were not aware of the efficacy of homoeopathic system of medicine and were depending on other system of medicine like allopathy etc.
Dysmenorrhoea means painful menstruation with severe cramping affecting the lower part of the abdomen.The pain is sharp , intermittent and spasmodic pain .It is classified as mild, moderate or severe.Pain starts several hours before or with the onset of menses and last for one to three days.It is a common gynaecological problem in womens in reproductive age group.
DYSMENORRHOEA IS CLASSIFIED INTO-
Painful menstruation with no identifiable pelvic pathology.In primary dysmenorrhoea there is no disease of uterus or other pelvic organs.
In secondary dysmenorrhoea ,painful menstruation due to pelvic or uterine pathology,like uterine fibroids ,endometriosis,adenomyosis etc.
CAUSES OF DYSMENORRHOEA-
4)Sexually Transmitted Infection.
5)Pelvic Inflammatory Disease.
6)Ovarian cyst or Tumour.
7)Excessive release of Prostaglandins.
During a women’s menstrual cycle ,the endometrium thickens in preparation for potential pregnancy .After ovulation, if the ovum is not fertilized and there is no pregnancy ,the built-up uterine tissue is not needed and thus shed.
Molecular compounds called Prostaglandins are released during menstruation ,due to the destruction of the endometrial cells ,and the resultant release of their contents, release of prostaglandins and other inflammatory mediators in the uterus to contract.These substances are thought to be a major factor in primary dysmenorrhea.When the uterine muscles contract, they constrict the blood supply to the tissue of the endometrium ,which in turn breaks down and dies .
These uterine contractions continue as they squeeze the old ,dead endometrial tissue through the cervix and out of the body through the vagina.These contractions, and the resulting temporary oxygen deprivation to nearby tissues ,are responsible for the pain or cramps experienced during menstruation.
Compared with other women ,females with primary dysmenorrhea have increased activity of the uterine muscle with increased contractility and increased frequency of contractions.
• Fluctuating ,spasmodic cramps.
• Pain begins few hours before or with menses.
• Pain mostly intense first 24-36 hours and last 2-3 days.
• Suprapubic pain .
• Pain radiating to thighs and back.
Globally 50-90% of womens will experience painful menses in reproductive age group.
Highest in adolescent age group .
INVESTIGATION AND DIAGNOSIS-
• History collection.
• Pelvic USG.
• Abdominal examination.
• Pelvic examination.
• Cervical culture.
• CBC.ESR to detect inflammatory process.
LIFE STYLE MODIFICATION-
• Low fat diet.
• Exercise like walking,swimming,running,bicycling etc.
• Hot fomentation.
Homeopathic remedies are helpful in treating the case of Dysmenorrhoea Basically constitutional remedy effects more and some are therapeutically based.
There are so many homoeopathic medicines which can be useful in Dysmenorrhea..
Few of them are-
Dysmenorrhoea,with pains flying to other parts of the body.Erratic pains changing place every few minutes .Neuralgic and congestive dysmenorrhoea with spasmodic ,irregular and severe pains especially first two days of menses.Vertigo and chilliness,nausea ,vomiting,intermittent uterine pains .Before menses ,pain in small of back and great aching and soreness of lower limbs .Flow very scanty ,blood very light with intense nausea and vomiting of yellow bitter matter,pain unremitting for several hours ,habitual cold feet became warm .
• SENECIO AUREUS-
Dysmenorrhea with urinary symptoms ,cutting in sacral and hypogastric regions ,flow scanty or profuse or irregular pale,weak,anaemic,hacking cough at night ,wandering pains in back and shoulders.
• MAGNESIA PHOSPHORICA-
The pain calling for it are neuralgic and crampy preceding the flow ,and the great indication for the use of this remedy is the relief from warmth and the aggravation from motion.
Spasmodic dysmenorrheal ,pains persists until flow ceases.Bearing down sensation with pressing pains in uterine region ,pains shifting from one hip to another.
• PULSATILLA NIGRICANS-
Delayed first menstruation. Mild ,Gentle,Weeping disposition ,fair complexion.Derrangements at puberty,menses,suppressed from getting the feet wet ;to late ,scanty, slimy,painful,irregular,intermittent flow,with evening chilliness ;with intense pain ,changeable ,comes suddenly and goes gradually ,great restlessness and tossing about flows more during day.Diarrhoea during menses .Pain in loins ,nausea,vomiting,vertigo,tenesmus of anus and bladder and many other sufferings before,during and after menses.
Congestive enlargement of uterus or ovaries ,bearing down pain.Dragging pains in loins ,severe throbbing in sacrum.
Cutting colic in abdomen and thighs ;irritable and snappish;during:profuse discharge of large clotted blood,severe labour like pain in the uterus ;tearing pains down the thighs ,gripping and pinching the uterus ,followed by discharge of clots.
Too early ,too profuse ,with dark ,coagulated ,sometimes offensive blood .
• VIBURNUM OPULUS-
Spasmodic dysmenorrhea ,when the menses are too late ,scanty and lasting for few hours.Bearing down pains in the uterine region.Tearing and shooting pain in ovarian region.Colicky pain in pelvic region .Uterine complaints associated with cramps in the thighs ,extending to calf.
Researches show that homoeopathic remedies have more benefits to the females suffering from Dysmenorrhea.
Homoeopathy by addressing all aspects of the individual and there complete set of symptoms throw the constitutional and holistic approach ,is superior to all method of treatment.
Homoeopathic treatment is based on the constitutional approach targeting the route cause and restoring the deviated immunity back to normal,there by cured the diseases.
In other system of medicines the treatment of Dysmenorrhea is mainly suppressive or palliative treatment rather than curative.
1) DC Dutta .Textbook of Gynecology .6th Edition .Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers;2014..
2) Boericke W.New Manual Of Homoeopathic Materia Medica. New Delhi: B.Jain Publishers(P)Ltd;2011.
3) Dubey S.K.,Text Book Of Materia Medica.1st Edition, New Delhi: Indian books and periodical Publishers Pvt.Ltd;2003.
4) Kent JT,Lectures On Homoeopathic Materia Medica. New Delhi:B.Jain Publishers Pvt.Ltd;2007.
About the Author
Dr Kavita Khandare
Dr Yasmeen Khan
Department of Pharmacy, Guru Mishri Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital