ABSTRACT- Carbon is the most important element of life. The existence of life could not have been made possible without this. Carbon is a non-metallic element, which is a characteristic constituent of organic compounds. Carbon, an element of prehistoric discovery, is very widely distributed in nature. Homoeopathic Medicines are made out of Carbon elements. A considerable part of Homoeopathic Materia medica consists of medicines taken from the mineral kingdom. In Homeopathy, Dr. Hahnemann used principally three carbons, CARBO ANIMALIS, CARBO VEGETABILIS, and GRAPHITES.It provides the framework for all tissues of plants and animals.
KEYWORDS – Carbon, element, life, Homeopathy, homeopathic medicines.
INTRODUCTION TO CARBON
- Amongst all the groups, carbon possesses an important place in our materia medica due to its wide range of utility in day-to-day life, therefore the study of the carbon group is very important.
- Carbon is derived further from the Latin word “carbo” which means coal. Carbon is the 15th most abundant element in the Earth’s crust the and 4th most abundant element in the universe by mass after hydrogen, helium, and oxygen.
- It is the second most abundant element in the human body by mass after oxygen. They are chemically inert.
Carbon is widely distributed in nature. It occurs naturally as well as prepared artificially. It is found in abundance in the sun, stars, comets, and meteorites.
Carbon in its pure form is found only in diamonds and graphite.
CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF CARBON GROUP
- Grauvogl’s “Carbonitrogenoid constitution”. Best suited to Venous and scrofulous constitution.
- Vitality is too low, sluggish, and slow. The carbonic type of constitution is characterized by “sober and clear gesture”, and a stiff gait because of the closeness of the articulatory ligament.
- So they are “rigid straight”; robust and intelligent on one hand and the other hand they are declined mentally and physically.
- All the carbon group remedies are chilly and patients are extremely sensitive to cold air.
Temperament- irritable and melancholic.
Miasm-all carbon group remedies are predominantly antipsoric.
DOCTRINE OF SIGNATURE
- When charcoal burns, the fumes go upwards, likewise the gas accumulates in the upper side of the abdomen of the patient.
- Vegetable charcoal is black in colour likewise the patient looks bluish and blackish due to cyanosis.
- Ash is collected on the outer surface, externally it looks cold but heat is present internally, likewise patient is cold externally but intense heat is present internally.
- Charcoal requires fanning from a very close distance to ignite, likewise patient wants to be fanned from a close distance.
- While preparing charcoal the burning wood is devoid of oxygen similarly patients do not get a good supply of oxygen hence, cyanosed.
- HOT DRINK
- WRAPPING UP
- EMOTIONAL STRESS
- SPRAIN AND STRAINS
- LOSS OF VITAL FLUIDS
- COLD AIR, OPEN AIR
- MENTAL OR PHYSICAL STRESS
SPHERE OF ACTION
- GENITAL SYSTEM
- DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
- LYMPHATIC GLANDS
- CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
- MUCOUS MEMBRANE
- Carbon slows down mental activities and causes sluggishness which is the marked feature of the carbon group. The patient is slow to think, stupid, lazy, and stagnation of thoughts. Mentally dull slow in understanding without idiocy and slow grasping power.
- Timidity is the main feature of all carbons.
- There is a state of mental confusion and irritability.
- Carbons are hard workers. They have a social standing and are quite unselfish.
Self-respect and dignity-
- They have a value of self-worth, dignity, and self-respect.
They are aristocratic people who believe in the quality of being excellency, worthy and honorable.
They always love the spiritual aspect of life and they always try to find a father figure or authority.
They want the right to enforce obedience, to act, and to command.
There are sudden changes in the mind, either fixed ideas or the mind is continuously changing.
Lack of confidence and tendency to shrink back from damage.
Though they are self-worthy, they are very shy, timid, and easily frightened.
Ulcers and Varicosities:
All carbons have a marked tendency to produce varicosity and ulceration. There is no rapid change or repair of ulcers.
- Petroleum – Skin dry, constricted, very sensitive, rough and cracked, leathery.
- Carbo Veg- Imperfect oxidation occurs. Blood seems to stagnate in the capillaries, causing blueness, coldness, ecchymosis, and ulceration.
All the carbons have very offensive and putrid discharges from the body. Stools, urine, sweat, and menses are very offensive. E.g.-
- Carbo Veg-Digestion slow; food putrefies before it digests.
- Kreosote–Offensive smell and discharge, offensive urine.
Burning pains: –
- It is typically present in all carbon groups, burning all over the body and also in palms and soles. Pains are smarting and burning in character.
- Burning shows the destructive properties of carbon, energy stored in the body is destroyed which leads to a lack of muscle strength.
- Carbons have swelled and indurated glands. It stimulates cancerous enlargement and infiltrations. Glands are hard and sore with indurated surrounding tissue and infiltrate.
- Sluggish, indurated abscess.
- Carbons Have direct action on the vascular system producing an inefficient heart, feeble circulation, stagnation of blood in the lungs, hypoventilation, cardiac asthma, and compressible thready, rapid pulse.
- Hypostatic pneumonia, much rattling in the chest, and the cyanosed condition are also seen.
- Its action
especially on the mucus membrane of the digestive tract produces catarrhal
condition, flatulence, distension of the abdomen, foul eructations, inactivity
of the bowels, and constipation.
In carbons, sluggish liver where non-starchy food also ferments.
- Vomiting may be sour, coffee-ground.
- All carbons show a special affinity towards the skin producing excoriations and erythema from friction or rubbing.
- Skin is unhealthy, fat, sluggish, edematous, and brittle.
- Eczematous eruption and intertrigo.
- There is a depressed gas exchange and an increase inthe fermentative process due to which there is putrescence.
- Carbo animalis (contains phosphate of lime).
- Carbo vegetabilis (contains carbonate of potash).
- Graphites (contains iron).
- Carboneum (Lampblack).
- Coal gas.
- Bisulphide of Carbon.
- Aniline sulphate
Animal Charcoal. Made from charred ox-hide.
- Headache: as if a tornado in head; as if head had been blown to pieces; has to sit up at night and hold it together.
- Circulationfeebly stagnated, and vital heat sinks to a minimum; cyanosis (Ant. t., Carbo v.).
- Glands: indurated, swollen, painful; in the neck, axillae, groin, mammae; pains lancinating, cutting, burning (Con.).
- Easily strained from lifting, even small weights; straining and over-lifting easily produce great debility; ankles turn when walking.
- After the appearance of menses so weak she can hardly speak (Alum., Coc.); menses flow only in the morning.
- Menstruation, leucorrhea, and diarrheaare all exhausting (Ars. – are all offensive, Psor.).
- Hearing confused; cannot tell from what direction a sound comes.
- Aggravation- After shaving (> after, Brom.); slightest touch, after midnight.
- For the bad effects of exhausting diseases, whether in young or old (Cinch., Phos., Psor.).
- Weakness of memory and slowness of thought.
- Persons who have never fully recovered from the exhausting effects of some previous illness; asthma, dates from measles or pertussisin childhood.
- Ailments: from quinine, especially suppressed intermittents; abuse of mercury, salt, salt meats; spoiled fish, meats, or fats; from getting overheated (Ant. c.).
- Desire to be constantly fanned.
- Eructations give temporary relief.
- Patients crave things that make them sick; old topers crave whiskey or brandy; want clothing loose around the abdomen.
- In the last stages of the disease, with copious cold sweat, cold breath, cold tongue, and voice lost, this remedy may save a life.
Black lead (plumbago)
- Suited to women, inclined to obesity, who suffer from habitual constipation; with a history of delayed menstruation.
- “What Pulsatilla is at puberty, Graphites is at the climacteric.”.
- Excessive cautiousness; timid; hesitates; unable to decide about anything (Puls.).
Menses:too scanty, pale, late with violent colic; irregular; delayed from getting feet wet (Puls.).
Leucorrhoea: acrid, excoriating; occurs in gushes day and night; before and after menses (before Sep., after, Kreos.).
Unhealthy skin; every injury suppurates (Hep.); old cicatrices break open again; eruptions on various parts of the body, from which oozes a watery, transparent sticky fluid.
A Distillation of Wood Tar
- small wounds bleed freely (Crot., Lach., Phos.); flow passive, in epistaxis, haemoptysis, haematuria; after the extraction of a tooth (Ham.).
- Painful dentition teeth begin to decay as soon as they appear; gums bluish-red, soft, spongy, bleeding, inflamed, scorbutic, and ulcerated.
- cold drinks relieve menstrual pains. Severe headache before and during menses (Sep.). Roaring and humming in ears, with deafness, before and during menses.
- acrid, corrosive, offensive; worse between periods (Bov., Bor.),has the odour of green corn.
Incontinence of urine:
- Can only urinate when lying; during first sleep (Sep.). Smarting and burning during and after micturition.
Coal or Rock Oil.
- from riding in a carriage, railroad car, or a ship (Coc., Sanic.). Ailments that are worse before and during a thunderstorm (Nat. c., Phos., Psor.)
- in occiput, which is as heavy as lead; pressing, pulsating pain; as if everything in the head were alive; numb, bruised, as if made of wood.
- yellow, watery, gushing; after cabbage, always in daytime. whenever stomach is empty; relieved by constant eating.
- Painful sensitiveness of skin of the whole body; all clothing is painful; slight injury suppurates.
- skin of hands rough, cracked, tips of fingers rough, cracked, fissured, every winter.
- Heat and burning of soles of feet and palms of hands.
Acc. To Dr. J.T. Kent Repertory
- Mind, company aversion to (p. 12)
- Mind, home-sickness (p.51)
- Head, pain, torn, as if, vertex (p. 221)
- Respiration, difficult, fanned, wants to be(p.769)
- Chill, icy coldness of the body, of, the whole body, with cold breath (p. 1268)
- Extremities, coldness, knee, night (p. 961)
- Mind, dullness, sluggishness, the difficulty of thinking and comprehending (p. 37)
- Skin, eruptions, discharging, glutinous (p. 1311)
- Extremities, hardness, skin of hands (See Callosities) (p. 1010)
- Mind, restlessness, evening, 6 p.m. till 6 a.m. (p. 72)
- Teeth, caries, decayed, hollow, premature in children (p. 431)
- Head, pain, pressing, occiput, weight, or stone (p. 197).
- Stomach, nausea, riding in a carriage or on the cars, while (agg.) (p. 509)
- William Boericke. Pocket manual of Homoeopathic Materia Medica and Repertory. (51st impression), New Delhi: B Jain Publishers(P) Ltd; 2011.
- Kent J.T. Lectures on Homeopathic Materia Medica. 2nd rearranged edition, New Delhi: B Jain publishers; 2009.
- Kent J.T., Repertory of the Homoeopathic Materia Medica.B. Jain Publishers(P) Ltd.,2008.