Anatomical Directions  - homeopathy360

Anatomical Directions 

Anatomical directional terms and planes of the human body, commonly used in anatomy and medicine to describe locations and movements. Here is a breakdown of these terms:

Anatomical Directions

  • Medial: Toward the midline of the body.
  • Lateral: Away from the midline of the body.
  • Dorsal: Toward the back (posterior).
  • Ventral: Toward the front (anterior).
  • Cranial: Toward the head (superior).
  • Caudal: Toward the tail or feet (inferior).
  • Proximal: Closer to the point of attachment or to a given reference point.
  • Distal: Further from the point of attachment or from a given reference point.

Anatomical Planes

  • Sagittal Plane (YZ plane): Divides the body into left and right parts. If it divides the body into equal left and right halves, it is called the midsagittal plane.
  • Coronal Plane (XY plane): Divides the body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) parts. Also known as the frontal plane.
  • Transverse Plane (XZ plane): Divides the body into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) parts. Also known as the horizontal plane.

These directional terms and planes are fundamental in describing anatomical locations, movements, and positions in a consistent and clear manner.

What movements happen in the coronal (frontal) plane?

The coronal plane is often referred to as the frontal plane. This divides the body into the front (anterior) and back (posterior) sections.

Movements that occur in the coronal (frontal) plane are lateral or side-to-side. These include:

  • Abduction: moving your limbs laterally, away from the midline of the body (e.g., lifting your leg to the side)
  • Adduction: moving your limbs medially, toward the midline of the body (e.g., lowering your arm down to the side of your body)
  • Elevation: raising your scapula (shoulder blade) upward
  • Depression: lowering your scapula (shoulder blade) downward
  • Inversion of the ankle: sole of your foot turns inward toward the midline of the body (a component of supination
  • Eversion of the ankle: sole of your foot turns outward away from the body’s midline (a component of pronation)

What movements happen in the sagittal (longitudinal) plane?

Movements that occur in the sagittal (longitudinal) plane involve forward and backward movements.

The movements of the sagittal (longitudinal) plane include:

  • Flexion: bending a limb to decrease the angle at a joint (e.g., lifting a dumbbell during a bicep curl flexes the elbow)
  • Extension: movement that increases the angle at a joint (e.g., lifting your leg behind you when standing extends the hip joint)
  • Dorsiflexion: bending the ankle so the top of the foot and your toes move toward your shin
  • Plantar flexion: bending the ankle so the foot pushes down and your toes point away

What movements happen in the transverse (axial) plane?

The transverse plane, or the axial plane, divides the body into upper (superior) and lower (inferior) halves.

Movements that occur in this plane involve rotation or horizontal movement, which include:

  • Rotation: rotating the torso or a limb around its vertical axis (e.g., turning your head to the left or right)
  • Horizontal abduction: moving the arm away from the midline of the body when it’s at a 90-degree angle in front of you
  • Horizontal adduction: moving the arm toward the midline of the body when it’s at a 90-degree angle to the side

Reference:

https://www.healthline.com/health/body-planes#sagittal-plane

About the author

Dr Mansi Tyagi

Dr Mansi Tyagi - BHMS (Bachelor of Homeopathic Medicine and Surgery) graduate from prestigious college of Delhi, Dr.B.R.Sur Homoeopathic Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre.