An effectiveness of homoeopathic medicines in the treatment and management of Allergic Contact Dermatitis

An effectiveness of homoeopathic medicines in the treatment and management of Allergic Contact Dermatitis

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An effectiveness of homoeopathic medicines in the treatment and management of Allergic Contact Dermatitis

ABSTRACT

Background: The prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis causes significant morbidity. A detailed history, physical examination, and patch testing are used to diagnose. Currently, many commercially accessible patch testing panels are employed. Foods, workplace exposures, and a wide range of everyday products include allergens. Avoiding the allergen is the cornerstone of treatment, and databases like the Contact Allergen Replacement Database and Contact Allergen Management Program assist patients in choosing goods free of allergens to which they are hypersensitive. Exacerbations can be treated with topical corticosteroids, although prolonged use of these medications is not advised.

Methods: Books, databases including ResearchGate and PubMed, and web archives were used to survey the literature on homoeopathy and its classical literature. For a more specialized design, homoeopathic methods and applications were examined. Homoeopathic explanations were used to explore the relevance of contemporary medical terminology. The factors contributing to allergic contact dermatitis were studied in the literature were presented.

Results: Homoeopathy has a well-established track record of managing and preventing an allergic contact dermatitis. Research and literature have demonstrated that it has anti allergic effects. Hopefully, this natural healing system can be used to counteract the side effects of prolonged, high-dose pharmaceutical therapies.

Conclusion: Homoeopathy is a proven means of best remedy and preventing the any skin allergic response without side effects.

Keywords: Homoeopathy; Systemic contact dermatitis; Allergic contact dermatitis; Contact dermatitis; Eczema

  • INTRODUCTION

Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD), also known as allergic contact dermatitis, is a type 4 or delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction (DTH) of the immune system to a tiny hapten (less than 500 daltons in size) comes into touch with skin that has already been sensitized1. Sensitization is the process that increases an allergen-specific T cell population2. It causes the hapten to interact with a protein to generate the initial or induction phase of ACD3. Re-exposure to the antigen causes dermatitis to form during the elicitation phase. 20% of contact dermatoses are caused by ACD, and allergens vary widely depending on region, individual habits, and hobbies, as well as frequently the kinds of preservatives allowed by law, such as quaternion-15 in the United States but not in Europe4.

ACD can be caused by various substances such as allergens and irritants5. The causes may be environmental such as extreme weather conditions, pollens, certain plants and animal hairs, etc. Other triggers may include dyes, cosmetics, clothes, perfumes, cleaning agents, metals, adhesives, rubber, chemicals, fertilizers, dentures, medicines, certain food substances, etc6. In contrast to internal or dietary sources, an allergen on the skin is the primary cause of contact allergy. The specific allergen, innocuous to those not sensitive to it, only causes reactions in a small % of people 7. Years of exposure to the allergen may have passed without their developing dermatitis. Dermatitis can be brought on by contact with minimal amounts of an allergen8.Patients who have deficient filaggrin, a structural protein in the stratum corneum, as a result of atopic dermatitis are at significant risk of additionally developing allergic contact dermatitis9.

  • EPIDEMIOLOGY

A skin inflammation that affects a large portion of the population is allergic contact dermatitis. It is the kind of occupational skin disease that is most prevalent 10. ACD causes 20% of cases of contact dermatitis. It is an unfavourable cutaneous inflammatory reaction brought on by direct skin contact with a particular foreign allergen to which people have already developed sensitivity 10. The primary and most typical kind of immunotoxicity observed in people is ACD 11,12. All ages are affected, albeit adults over 70 are less likely to experience it 13. Individuals repeatedly exposed to the sensitizing agent develop clinical symptoms, frequently characterized by extreme itching, stinging, and pain, along with clearly defined erythema and oedema. Many occupations, including those in the beauty and wellness industries and hairdressing, are susceptible to this skin problem. The hands are the most frequent site of manifestation, and proper diagnosis is crucial for effective treatment 14,15. While contact with a mild allergen may take months to years to cause sensitization, exposure to a potent sensitizer causes sensitization in as little as a week or more 16.It more frequently affects women than men.The problem frequently corresponds with topical treatments in older people.

  • PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

The touch of the allergen on the skin initiates the pathophysiology of allergic contact dermatitis. The skin’s stratum corneum is penetrated by this allergen, which Langerhans cells then take up17,18. These cells then digest the antigens and show them on their surfaces. Then, Langerhans cells move in the direction of local lymph nodes. These cells come into contact with the nearby T lymphocytes while absorbing antigens. Antigen-specific T cells are produced due to the clonal expansion and cytokine-induced proliferation processes. These lymphocytes may then reach the epidermis as they move through the circulation. The sensitization phase of allergic contact dermatitis refers to the entire process. The phase that follows reexposure to the antigen is known as elicitation. The interaction between the antigen-containing Langerhans cells and the T lymphocytes specific to that antigen causes cytokine-induced proliferation. In turn, this proliferation causes a focused inflammatory reaction.

  • SYMPTOMS

A localised, clearly defined skin eruption, most frequently on the hands or face, maybe the first symptom of ACD, though it can also be more widespread. For instance, rinse-off items like body wash or shampoo may come into contact with numerous body regions, resulting in a more diffuse presentation19. Additionally, a more widespread cutaneous reaction may happen when the patient consumes an allergen systemically. Lichenification, fissuring, and scaling are the more typical manifestations of chronic ACD20.

  • DIAGNOSIS

A history, physical exam, clinical presentation, and a positive patch test are typically used to diagnose allergic contact dermatitis21. Patch testing is a series of examinations determining the root cause of allergic contact dermatitis in suspected cases.A patch test involves applying adhesive patches to skin. Chemicals in the patches are known to cause allergic responses frequently. Healthcare professional examines skin for reactions after 48 hours. In another 48 to 96 hours, one last skin examination with your doctor.

  • TREATMENT / MANAGEMENT

Treatments include:

Avoidance: Need to dentify the source of the rash, take precautions to stay away from it or reduce exposure to it. Corticosteroid creams are anti-itch products that can reduce inflammation and irritation22.

Steroids are taken orally: Prednisone, a steroid, can cure rash symptoms that are unresponsive to other medications or antihistamines23.

Immunosuppressive drugs: Used in extreme situations where oral steroids must be taken repeatedly24.

  • DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

Atopic and irritating contact dermatitis share many morphological similarities in their clinical presentations. Drug eruptions, scabies, urticarial bullous pemphigoid, urticaria, psoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis, periorificial dermatitis, and rosacea are different skin disorders that need to be checked out25.

  • PREVENTION

The best strategy to prevent allergic contact dermatitis is to avoid known allergens.

  • Choose moisturizers without fragrances.
  • Use gentle, dye- and fragrance-free soaps and cleansers.
  • After coming into contact with an allergen or irritant, wash right away26,27.
  • PROGNOSIS

The affected populations will live with this sickness for the rest of their life. The best course of action is to avoid the allergy strictly. Treatment aims to control the inflammatory response. The longer someone has ACD, the longer it will take to go away28.

  1. COMPLICATIONS

The inflammatory response plays a role in allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) complications. When the allergen is eliminated, the inflammation goes down. Diffuse dermatitis may develop if the allergen is ingested systemically, although this situation is not regarded as a dermatologic emergency29.

  1. TREATMENT OF ACD BY USING HOMOEOPATHIC MEDICINE

11.1 SULPHUR

Sulphur is one of the greatest homoeopathic treatments for allergic dermatitis, which is characterized by dry, scaly skin and severe itching. unbearable itching that becomes worse at night or when you get warm in bed. A scorching sensation follows a lot of scratching. In the spring or during wet weather, complaints tend to surface. detrimental repercussions of repressed eruptions30. Despite having unclean and unhealthy skin, people avoid taking a wash. Every small wound suppurates; it is dry, scaly, and unhealthy. Freckles. Burning. Eruption of pimples, blemishes, rhagades, and hangnails. Excision, particularly in folds. a band-like sensation around the bones Skin conditions following local medicine. Pruritus, especially from heat in the evening, frequently returns in the spring when it’s rainy. A homoeopathic remedy for sulphur is always indicated by ebullitions of heat, aversion to water, dry and hard hair and skin, red orifices, a sinking feeling in the stomach around 11 am, and catnap sleep. Standing is the worst position for sulphur sufferers because it is so uncomfortable. People with poor hygiene are prone to skin conditions and dislike washing. When well-chosen treatments are ineffective, particularly in the case of acute illnesses, it typically triggers the body’s reactionary mechanisms31. Grievances that recur. The general offensiveness of the exhalations and discharges Very red face and lips that readily blush. Extremely forgetful. Challenging thoughts He has delusions, believes that rags are attractive, and believes that he is incredibly wealthy and greedy—religion-related sadness, Business-averse; loaves—too lazy to wake up. Imagine killing someone by giving them the wrong things. Even with a good appetite, sulphur subjects are almost always agitated, depressed, skinny, and frail31.

Constant heat on the top of the head. Pressure in the temples, along with heaviness and fullness. Pounding headache made worse by stooping and vertigo. Sick headache that periodically returns. The dry variant of tinea capitis. Hair falls due to a dry scalp; worse, bathing. Scratching creates burning and itching31.

11.2 GRAPHITES

Graphites is among the best homoeopathic treatments for allergic dermatitis that manifests as skin folds. Itching and skin roughness eruptions that ooze a thick, gooey substance. Face, nose, and chin eruptions that itch. Rough, harsh, and persistent dryness in areas of skin that are not schematized. Early keloid and fibroma stages. Acne and pimples. Eruptions that exude a sticky fluid. Roughness in the groynes, neck, and behind the ears. Skin that is not healthy; even minor injuries are suppurate. Ulcers release a thin, sticky glutinous fluid. Gland enlargement and induration. Gout-related nodules. Nipple, mouth, between the toes, and anus cracks. Face erysipelas with phlegm; stinging and burning sensation. Foot swelling Wens. Chronic Toxic This treatment, oak, is a potent anti-psoric treatment that is particularly effective in treating people who are stout, fair-skinned, prone to skin conditions and constipation, obese, chilly, and costive, have a history of delayed menstruation, and are susceptible to colds. Children are rude, tease, and mock corrections. Has a propensity for internal problems to manifest on the skin first. Eliminates tendency for erysipelas. Anaemia with facial redness, obesity propensity, enlarged genitalia. Leucorrhoid haemorrhage. It helps cicatricial tissue absorbs. Induration -Menses too late; constipated; pale and scanty; tearing pain in the epigastrium; and itching prior. -Menses too late; constipated; pale and scanty; tearing pain in the epigastrium; and itching prior. In tissues. Cancer of the stomach. A duodenal ulcer32. Excellent propensity to begin. Timid. I’m undecided. Lack of willingness to work when seated at work, restless. She cries to music. Uncertainty, hopelessness, and indecision. Menstrual periods that are late, constipated, pale, and itchy are preceded by ripping epigastric discomfort.

11.3 RHUS TOX 

Indications for Rhus Tox include allergic dermatitis, asthma, and hay fever. The skin is red, itchy, and vesicular eruptions are present. Fluid-filled eruptions burned noticeably and itched terribly.Eczematous eruptions burn and tend to produce scales. Complaints are exacerbated by rainy, cloudy weather.The glands swell. Cellulitis. Mentally drained and depressed. Suicidal thoughts, extreme agitation and frequent posture changes. Delusion and worry of being poisoned (Hyos). The sensorium darkens. I can’t stay in bed at night due to my anxiety33.It feels like a board has been fastened to the forehead. Rising with dizziness, large head.

 Cellulitis in the orbits is swollen, red, and edematous. Inflammations in the pus

Jaws snap as one chew. Jaw dislocation is simple. Face swelling with erysipelas. Touch-sensitive cheekbones. Parotitis. Chilly facial neuralgia that gets worse at night. Crusta lactea

Lack of desire for any food and insatiable thirst. Bitter flavour. Nausea, dizziness, and a bloated stomach following a meal. Milk craving. Intense longing and throat- and mouth-drying. As though from a stone, pressure. After eating, I got sleepy. Joint swelling that is hot and unpleasant. Ripping pains in the fascia, ligaments, and tendons. Rheumatic aches are widespread and improve with movement at the neck, the loins, and the extremities 34. Pain in the bones’ condyles. Paralyzed, rigid limbs. The skin hurts from the cold, fresh air, which is intolerable.

11.4 MEZEREUM

Mezereum is one of the best treatments for allergic and seborrheic dermatitis with scalp eruptions. Thick scab developing on the scalp, bleeding viscous pus, and hair matting. It is recommended for newborns with scalp dermatitis. The outbreaks include foul fluids and excruciating itching.Eczema, excruciating itching, shivering with pruritus, worse in bed. With vesicles and a gleaming, flaming-red areola surrounding them, ulcers itch and burn—Zona groans in agony35. Long bones, in particular, are inflamed and swollen; there are caries and exostoses; discomfort is worse at night, when touched, and in wet weather. Under purulent substance oozes, eruptions ulcerate and create thick scabs.The most significant symptoms are those related to the skin, bones, and neuralgias, particularly those affecting the face and teeth. Joints feel achy, bruised, and stiff, with a drawing sensation.

Various types of pain are accompanied by a shiver and sensitivity to cold. Bone aches. Outbreaks following immunisation. Subsultus tendinum; burning, jerking sensation in the muscles. The patient seems to be drawn out of bed by pains that shoot up. Semilateral grievances Patient has a high threshold for chilly air. Thick, leathery crusts on the head that are accumulating pus. When eating, the painful neuralgia around the face and teeth worsens at night and gets better near a hot stove—decay in tooth roots. Their teeth appear to be longer. Ears. — Feel too wide open, as if the tympanum were exposed to the chilly air, which blew into the ear.Ciliary neuralgia following surgery. Especially following eyeball removal. With a cold sensation and bone stiffness, the pain radiates and shoots downhill. – a craving for ham fat. Tongue burning that spreads to the stomach. My mouth was watering My throat felt queasy; eating made it better. Chronic gastritis, nausea, vomiting, corrosive pain, and a chocolate colour. Painful stomach ulcer. Even worse, there was a chill in the air, and at night, it was evening until midnight. Better, outside36.

11.5 NATRUM MURIATICUM

When eruptions form on the scalp’s edge near the hairline, they signify natrum muriaticum. The explosions are crusted, dry, and have raw skin.Especially on hairy regions, greasy and oily. Especially on the hairy scalp’s edge and the bends of joints, dry eruptions. Blisters from fever. Burning and itching urticaria. Crusty eruptions behind the ears, on the scalp, and in the bends of the limbs. Hand palms covered in warts. Eczema that is raw, red, and irritated is made worse by salty beach food—impacting hair follicles Alopecia. After effort, hives and itching37. Oily skin.-Psychic causes of illness; negative consequences of sorrow, fear, wrath, etc.; depression, especially in chronic diseases. Comfort exacerbates. Easily irritated; becomes passionate about trifles. Awkward, hurried and wants to cry in privacy. Cries while laughing. Head- Throbs. Severe headache. Aches that feel like a thousand little hammers are hitting the head first thing in the morning, after menstruation, and from sunrise until sunset. Oral eruptions and pearly-like vesicles on the lips. Lips and mouth corners are chapped, sore, and dry—deep lip crack in the centre. A tongue map hungry but lacking in the flesh. Palpitations along with heartburn. Insatiable thirst while eating, sweats38. Want for salt, dislike bread, fats, and anything slimy like oysters. Pit throbbing, feeling of sticking in the heart orifice.

11.6 LYCOPODIUM

Cracked, thick, tough skin that is indurated and bleeding. Ulcerates. Skin abscesses; exacerbated with heated treatments. Hives; worse, heat Fissured outbreaks and painful itching. Acne. Easily bleeds; linked with hepatic, gastrointestinal, and urinary problems. Skin gets indurated and thick. Erectile tumours, naevi, and varicose veins. The left side of the face and nose have more brown patches and freckles. Dry, shrunken, especially the hands; hair goes grey before its time39. Dropsies. Offensive secretions; viscid and offensive sweat, particularly on the foot and axilla. Psoriasis.

Sad and terrified of being by themselves. Very sensitive, I get annoyed by little things. Unwilling to try new things. When ill, one has a proud and strong head. A decline in confidence rushed during mealtime. Ongoing concern that you’ll lose it under pressure. Apprehensive. Weak memory, fuzzy thinking, misspelling words and syllables in writing. Failing mental capacity. Unable to stand to see anything fresh. Couldn’t make out what he wrote. sadness when rising in the morning39.

Shakes his head inexplicably. Their mouth and face are twisted. Acute headache on the vertex; worse between 4 and 8 pm, lying down or crouching, and not eating frequently. The fan-like motion of aloe nasi .. Tonsillitis, starting on the right side. Diphtheria; left to right spreading deposits; worse, worse, cold beverages. A small amount of food leads to fullness. Incomplete burning eructations rise only to the pharynx. There burn for hours.

11.7 PETROLEUM

The skin is thicker, dry, and covered in crusts that are a light green colour. Cracks and fissures that bleed, burn and itch terribly. The problems worsen over the winter.Evening itching Chilblains are itchy, burning, and wet. Bed-sores. Skin that is tight, sensitive, rough, cracked, and leathery. Herpes. Skin suppurates with the slightest scratch. Intertrigo; hand psoriasis. Crusts are thick, greenish, stinging, itchy, and painful; cracks bleed easily. Eczema.

Mental feelings aggravate it. He gets lost in the streets. He believes he is a double or someone else is lying next to him. He knows that death is imminent and needs to hurry to settle matters. Easily offended, irritable, and bothered by everything. Low-spirited and visually dull. Sensitive, like it was being blown by chilly air. It feels numb, as though made of wood and has a heavy, lead-like occiput40. As you rise, you experience vertigo in your head that makes you feel drunk or seasick. A wet eruption on the scalp; the back and ears are worse. To touch the scalp causes pain, then numbness. Nasal tip itches; nostrils are ulcerated, cracked, and burning. Eructation that is hot, harsh, and sour. Distention. a profound sense of emptiness, intense dislike of meat and other fatty foods; even worse, cabbage.Immediately following stools, hunger. Nausea and a buildup of water in the mouth. When the stomach is empty, gastralgia; is alleviated by constant eating. Diarrhoea only occurs during the day; it is watery, flowing, and itching after the cabbage, feeling empty in the stomach, recurring sprains and sweating faeces in the axilla. Stiff knees. Every winter, the tips of fingers get rough, cracked, and fissured. Stinging pain in the knee. A joint cracking. Worse, rain, from driving or other passive motion before or during a thunderstorm; in the winter, from eating or emotional states. Better: dry weather; laying on one’s back; warm air.

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Abut Author:

Dr Pooja Tagde, MD Scholar Batch 2020-2021, Department of Practice of Medicine, Government Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh.

Pooja Tagde1*, Sanjay Gupta1, Juhi Gupta1, S.K. Mishra1, Priti Tagde2&3*1 Government Homoeopathic Medical College & Hospital Bhopal, 462003 2 Patel college of Pharmacy, Madhyanchal University, Bhopal(M.P), India 3PRISAL Foundation (Pharmaceutical Royal International Society), India

DR AJAY PRAJAPATI
Posted By: DR AJAY PRAJAPATI

Homeopathic Doctor, MD Scholar (Organon of Medicine) Government Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh.