Abstract: Alcohol is psychoactive substance which happen to have dependency producing qualities. It is used widely for many purposes in various cultures. Alcohol consumption leads to many mental and physical disorders, many diseases and accidents. It not only harms the person who consumes it but also harms other people includes family members, friends, coworkers and strangers. Homeopathy found to be helpful in treating addiction of alcohol to the stage of recovery. Being a nontoxic and holistic approach, it can help an addict to get out of this mire of alcoholism.
Keywords- Alcoholism, alcohol intoxication, alcohol withdrawal syndrome, homeopathic repertory, homeopathic rare medicines.
Alcohol abuse is the pattern of consuming alcohol that results in harm to one’s physical, social and psychological health .
Alcohol misuse leads to acute alcohol intoxication (alcohol poisoning) or alcohol dependency (alcohol use disorder).
An adult of legal drinking age can choose not to drink or to drink in moderation by limiting the intake to 2 drinks or less in a day for men and 1 drink or less in a day for women. 
ACUTE ALCOHOL INTOXICATION
Acute alcohol intoxication is a clinically harmful condition that usually follows the ingestion of a large amount of alcohol in a short period of time.
Clinical features [ 3, 4,5 ]
- CNS depression Ethanol is a CNS depressant, in small quantities interferes with function of several neurotransmitter system like GABA (gamma aminobutyric acid receptor), glutamate system and serotonin system and predominantly affects frontal cortical control and in larger doses, may depress medullary function.
The effects of ethanol on CNS are generally proportional to blood ethanol concentration i.e.
- Less than 500mg/dl- loquacity, subjective feeling of well being
- 500-1000mg/dl- inebriation, slurred speech, emotional instability, in coordination and loss of sensory perception
- 1000-5000mg/dl- Intoxication that includes Loss of sensory perception, Muscular incoordination, Ataxia, blurred or double vision, Convulsions or coma.
- More than 5000mg/dl- Very severe intoxication that includes Coma, Hyporeflexia, Hypothermia, Respiratory depression, Poor airway protection
- Vasodilation: Ethanol causes peripheral vasodilatation that may result in hypothermia and hypotension in highly intoxicated individual.
- Hypoglycemia: There is inhibition of hepatic glucogenesis that result in hypoglycemia, particularly when poisoning follows fasting, exercise or chronic malnutrition. Typically, alcohol-induced hypoglycemia occurs within 6–36 hours after ingestion of a moderate to large amount of alcohol. Usual features of hypoglycemia like flushing, sweating, tachycardia is absent but present with hypothermia and comatose.
- Lactic acidosis: Usually, it is not so common but it is a serious complication and occurs in patients especially with severe liver disease, pancreatitis or sepsis.
- Alcoholic ketoacidosis: it may develop in alcoholics who recently start to consume alcohol in heavy amount. It occurs when person has dehydration, glucopenia, increased lipolysis and ketogenesis all together. Onset of ketoacidosis follows an ethanol free interval with frequent vomiting so ethanol may be undetectable in blood.
- Amnesia and hangover
- accidents and injuries sustained in any fight
- aspiration of vomitus: leads to coma or death.
ALCOHOL USE DISORDER [2,6]
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a medical condition which is characterized by inability to stop or control alcohol use regardless the adverse social, occupational, or health consequences. It covered the terms such as alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence, alcohol addiction, and the colloquial term, alcoholism. Considered a brain disorder, AUD can be mild, moderate, or severe. Lasting changes in the brain caused by alcohol misuse perpetuate AUD and make individuals vulnerable to relapse.
There is a criterion to define alcohol dependency as
• Narrowing of the drinking repertoire
• Priority of drinking over other activities (salience)
• Tolerance of effects of alcohol
• Repeated withdrawal symptoms
• Relief of withdrawal symptoms by further drinking
• Subjective compulsion to drink
• Reinstatement of drinking behavior after abstinence
Following causes that leads to alcohol use disorder
- Availability of alcohol and social demand for its use
- Genetic factor
- As a way to relieve the anxiety and depression
- People who abuse alcohol may have certain personality traits like feeling of isolation. Shyness, loneliness, dependency, hostile and self-destructive impulsivity and sexual immaturity or may have social problems like disturbed relationship with family.
- Social problems: staying away from work, unemployment, marital tension, child abuse, financial difficulties and problems with the law, such as violence and traffic offences.
- Psychological problems: Depression
- Alcoholic hallucinosis
- Alcohol withdrawal Symptoms usually become more about 2 days after the last drink and includes seizures (‘rum fits’).
- Delirium tremens: they are associated with severe alcohol withdrawal.
- Alcoholic blackouts
- Neurological Complication:
- Cerebral dementia, cerebellar degeneration
- Demyelinating syndrome – Central pontine myelinolysis, Marchiafava-Bignami syndrome
- Neuropathy: Sensory, motor, mixed, autonomic
- Nutritional deficiencies
- Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
- Tobacco-alcohol amblyopia
- Effects On Other Organs :
- On Liver and pancreas: fatty change and cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma
- Acute and chronic relapsing pancreatitis
- Malabsorption syndrome
- Overt expression of latent genetic hepatic porphyrias
- Gastrointestinal: Periodontal disease and caries
- Oral infections, leukoplakia and malignancy
- Alcoholic gastritis and hematemesis
- Alcoholic enteropathy and malabsorption syndrome
- Colonic malignancy
- Cardiovascular: Cardiac arrhythmia
- Voluntary muscle and skeletal: Proximal metabolic myopathy, principally affecting type II
- Neuromyopathy secondary to motor nerve damage
- Atrophy of smooth muscle of GI tract leading to motility disorders
- Avascular necrosis (e.g., Femoral head)
- Genitourinary and reproductive: IgA nephropathy
- Renal tubular acidosis
- Renal tract infections
- Spontaneous abortion
- Fetal alcohol syndrome
- Dermatological: skin stigmata of liver disease
- Skin infection bacterial, fungal, viral
- Local cutaneous vascular effects
- Discoid eczema
- Hematological: RBCs- macrocytosis, anemia due to blood loss, folate deficiency and malabsorption
- WBCs- neutropenia, lymphopenia
- Platelets- thrombocytopenia
Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome
It is the characteristic feature of chronic alcohol abuse or alcohol dependency. It is characterized by sudden presentation of central nervous system excitation.
They occur after 6-8 hours after the cessation of alcohol intake and it may last for 2-7days.
Ethanol seems to act at the benzodiazepine g-aminobutyric acid (GABA) chloride receptor complex. When a person withdraws from alcohol, the receptor complex is lacking the potentiating effects of ethanol on chloride flux thus decreasing the efficacy of GABA. It leads to hyperactivity of neurotransmitter such as norepinephrine, glutamate and dopamine.
- minor withdrawal symptoms: they start to appear within a few hours of blood ethanol concentration falls sharply. It consists of weakness, faintness, sweating, irritability, catecholamine-induced hypertension, insomnia and tremors. They subside within 24-72 hours.
- Intermediate symptoms or alcoholic hallucinosis: they appear within 8-12 hours of cessation of alcohol and resolve after 48-72hours.It consists of
- auditory and visual hallucinations, mostly with an unpleasant or threatening content.
- Convulsions of uncomplicated grand mal type.
- Dysrhythmias due to electrolyte disbalance.
- Major withdrawal: Delirium tremens- they occur between 24-72 hours after the last drink and may last for about 1-5 days. It consists of:
- Agitation, hallucinations, illusions, delusions, tachycardia, hypertension, diaphoresis and dilated pupils.
- Breath, blood, urine examination
- GGT- Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase
- MCV (mean corpuscular volume)
- Carbohydrate- deficient transferrin level
- ALT, AST.
Treatment and Management of Alcohol Use Disorder [4,5]
- Withdrawal of alcohol by using medication, behavioral therapy which is also known as alcohol counselling and talk therapy or by mutual-support group method
- Multivitamin replacement.
- Electrolyte correction.
- Anticonvulsants in cases of convulsions.
- Reportorial Approach 
It consists of rubrics from every chapter related to alcohol for easy guidance towards the group of remedies that can help in management of alcohol abuse symptoms.
Answers, irrelevantly: Bell., carb-v., cimic., hyos., led., lyss., nux-m., nux-v., petr., ph-ac., Phos., sabad., sec., stram., sul-ac., Sulph., tarent., valer.
Confusion, beer, from: beer, from: Bell., calc., chin., coloc., con., cor-r., crot-t., ign.
- intoxicated, as after being : Acon., agar., am-m., ang., arg-m., bell., bry., camph., carb–v., chin., clem., cocc., coloc., cor-r., croc., Dig., glon., kali-c., lam., laur., mosch., nat-m., nux-v., op., ph-ac., psor., puls., rheum., sabin., squil., valer.
- spirituous liquors, from: Alum., bell., bov., con., cor-r., Nux-v., petr., stront.
- wine, from: All-c., alum., bov., coloc., con., kali-chl., mill., ox-ac., zinc.
Dipsomania: Ars., bufo., calc., caust., con., hep., lach., mag-c., merc., nux-v., op., petr., puls., staph., sulph.
- drinking on the sly: Sulph.
- menses, before: Selen.
Dullness, beer, after: coloc.,
- Wine, after: Acon., all-c., mill., zinc.
Excitement, beer, from: coc-c
- Wine, as from: kali-I., lyc., mosch., naja.
Insanity: drunkards, in: Ars., bell., calc., cann-i., carb-v., chin., coff., crot-h., dig., hell., hep., hyos., lach., merc., nat-c., Nux-v., op., puls., stram., sulph.
Mania-a-potu: : Acon., Agar., ant-c., arn., Ars., bell., bism., calc-s., calc., cann-i., carb-v., chin., chlol., cimic., coff., crot-h., dig., ferr-p., gels., grat., hell., hyos., ign., kali-br., kali-p., Lach., led., lyc., merc., nat–c., Nat-m., Nux-m., Nux-v., oena., Op., phos., puls., ran-b., rhod., rhus-t., ruta., sel., sep., sil., spig., Stram., Stry., sul-ac., sulph., verat., zinc.
Senses, confused: Arg-n., bell., lil-t., mang.
- Dullness of: Acon., agar., agn., alum., am-c., ambr., anac., ant-t., arn., ars-i., ars., asar., aur., bell., bov., bry., calc., camph., canth., caps., carb-v., caust., cedr., chel., cic., con., cycl., dig., dulc., Hell., hyos., ign., indg., iod., kali-c., kali–p., lach., lact., laur., led., lyc., mag-c., mang., meny., merc., mez., mosch., nat-m., nit-ac., Nux-m., nux-v., ol-an., olnd., Op., petr., ph-ac., phos., plb., ran-b., ran-s., rhod., rhus-t., sabad., sec., sel., sil., stann., staph., stram., sulph., tab., ther., verat., zinc
Speech, incoherent: Absin., agar., amyg., anac., arg-n., ars., bapt., bell., Bry., cact., calad., camph., Cann-i., carb-s., cham., chel., chlol., crot-h., cub., cupr., cycl., dulc., ether., gels., hep., hydr-ac., Hyos., kali-bi., kali-br., kali-c., kali-p., Lach., merc., morph., nux-m., op., par., ph-ac., Phos., plb., Rhus-t., Stram., sulph., tanac., vip., visc., zinc.
Stupefaction, wine, after: cor-r
Alcoholic liquors: Caust., Coloc., Nat-m., Nux-v., verat.
Congestion, wine, after: Sil.
Fullness, wine, after: Ail.
Heat, beer, after: chel., sulph.
- Wine, after: lyc., nux-v., petr.
Heaviness, beer, after: chel.
Pain, beer, from: All-c., bell., calc-caust., coc-c., coloc., ferr., kali-chl., merc., rhus-t., verat.
- Spiritous liquors, from: Acet-ac., Agar., alum., ant-c., ars., asaf., bell., bry., bufo., calc-s., calc., cann-i., carb-v., chel., chin., chlor., cimic., coff., coloc., con., gels., hell., hydr., ign., ip., Lach., led., lob., lyc., merc., nat-m., nit-ac., nux-m., Nux-v., op., phos., puls., Ran-b., rhod., rhus-t., ruta., sabad., sel., sil., spig., spong., stram., sulph., verat., zinc.
amel: Arg-n., bufo., cast., hell., ign., kreos., naja., phos., sep.
- Wine, from: Ant-c., arn., ars., bell., calc., carb-an., carb-v., cast., coff., con., Gels., glon., ign., kali-chl., lach., led., lyc., nat-a., nat-c., nat-m., nux-m., nux-v., ox-ac., petr., ran-b., rhod., rhus-t., sabad., sel., sil., stront., ter., verat., Zinc.
Amel.: Arg-n., calc., coca.
sour: Ant-c., ars., ferr., sulph.
Dim, drunkards, in: Nux-v.
Epistaxis, drunkards, in; Carb-v., lach., Sec.
Heat, wine, after: fl-ac
Pain, wine, agg.: bell., cact.
Carries, gums: calc.
Pain, beer: nux-v., rhus-t., sulph., zinc.
- Wine agg.: Acon., anan., camph., ign., nux-v.
Appetite, increased, beer, after: nux-v.
- Wine, after: nat-m
Aversion, beer: Alum., asaf., atro., bell., bry., calc., cham., Chin., clem., cocc., crot-t., cycl., ferr., nat-m., nat-s., Nux-v., pall., ph-ac., phos., rhus-t., sep., spig., spong., stann., sulph.
evening: Bry., nat-m., sulph.
- brandy: Ign., merc., rhus-t., zinc.
in brandy drinkers: Arn
- wine: Agar., ars-m., fl-ac., ign., jatr., jug-r., lach., manc., merc., nat-m., ph-ac., rhus-t., Sabad., sulph., zinc
desires, alcoholic drinks: Acon., aloe., am-c., ant-t., arn., ars-i., Ars., Asar., aster., aur., bov., bry., bufo., calc-ar., calc-s., calc., Caps., carb-an., chin., cic., Crot-h., cub., cupr., fl-ac., gins., hell., hep., iod., kreos., lac-c., Lach., lec., led., med., merc., mur-ac., naja., nat-p., Nux-v., op., phos., plb., psor., puls., sel., sep., sol-t-ae., spig., staph., sul-ac., Sulph., sumb., syph., tab., ter., ther., tub
- beer : Acon., agar., aloe., am-c., ant-c., arn., ars., asar., bell., bry., calad., calc., camph., carb-s., caust., chel., chin., coc-c., cocc., coloc., cupr., dig., graph., kali-bi., lach., mang., merc., mosch., nat-a., nat-c., nat-m., nat-p., nat-s., Nux-v., op., petr., ph-ac., phel., phos., psor., puls., rhus-t., sabad., sep., spig., spong., staph., stram., stront., Sulph., tell., zinc.
- brandy: Acon., ail., arg-n., ars-m., ars., aster., bov., bry., bufo., calc., chin., cic., coca., cub., ferr-p., hep., lach., mosch., mur-ac., Nux-v., olnd., Op., petr., phos., puls., sel., sep., spig., staph., stram., stront., sul-ac., sulph., ther.
- whisky: Acon., arn., ars., calc., carb-ac., carb-an., chin., cub., fl-ac., hep., Lac-c., lach., merc., nux-v., op., phos., puls., sel., spig., staph., Sulph., ther.
- wine: Acon., aeth., arg-m., ars., asaf., bov., bry., calc-ar., calc-s., calc., chel., chin-a., chin., cic., colch., cub., fl-ac., hep., hyper., kali-bi., kali-br., kali-i., lach., lec., merc., mez., nat-m., Phos., puls., sec., sel., sep., spig., staph., Sulph., sumb., ther.
Disordered, beer, after: aloe., ferr., kali-bi., sulph.
Nausea, beer, after: bry., lach., mur-ac., nux-v.
- drunkards, in: Ars., asar., Kali-bi., nux-v., sul-ac.
- Wine, after: ant-c., bry., carb-an., phos., zinc.
Pain, beer, after: carb-s., nux-v.
- Drunkards, in: calc., carb-v., lach., nux-v., sulph., sul-ac.
- Wine, after: bry.
Retching, drunkards, in: ars., nux-v., op.
Thirst, beer, agg. After: Bry.
Vomiting, beer, after: ferr., mez., sulph.
- Drunkards, of: Alumn., Ars., cadm., calc., caps., carb-ac., crot-h., Kali-bi., kali-br., lach., nux-v., op., sang., sul-ac., sulph., zing.
- Wine, agg.: ant-c.
Dropsy ascites: Acet-ac., acon., agn., Apis., Apoc., arg-n., Ars., asaf., aur-m-n., aur-m., aur., bry., calc., cann-s., canth., carb-s., card-m., caust., chel., chim., chin-a., chin., colch., coloc., crot-h., cur., dig., dulc., ferr-ar., fl-ac., graph., hell., helon., hep., iris., kali-ar., kali-br., kali-c., kali-chl., kali-p., kali-s., kalm., lact., led., Lyc., mag-m., med., merc., mill., nux-v., phos., prun-s., puls., sabin., senec., sep., sil., spong., squil., sulph., Ter.
- with chronic diarrhœa : Apoc., oena.
- induration of liver : Aur., lact.
Enlarged, liver: Agar., ant-t., ars-i., ars., aur-m., aur., bar-m., bry., bufo., calc-ar., calc., carb-v., card-m., chel., chin-a., Chin., chion., cocc., con., dig., ferr-i., ferr-p., ferr., fl-ac., hep., hippoz., hydr., iod., kali-c., kali-s., lach., lact., laur., Lyc., Mag-m., merc-i-r., merc., nat-m., Nat-s., nit-ac., nux-m., Nux-v., phos., plb., podo., ptel., sec., sel., sil., sulph., tab., tub., urt-u., zinc.
left lobe : Mag-m.
Fatty degenerationof liver: Chel., lyc., lyss., merc., phos.
Pain, brandy, after: ign.
- Wine, after: lyc.
Diarrhea, beer, after: Aloe., chin., gamb., Ind., kali-bi., lyc., mur-ac., Sulph.
- Drunkards, in old: Ant-t., apis., ars., chin., Lach., nux-v., phos.
- Wine, from: lach., lyc., zinc.
Hemorrhoids, beer, agg.: Aloe., bry., ferr., nux-v., rhus-t., Sulph.
- Drunkards, in: Ars., carb-v., Nux-v., sul-ac.
- URINARY ORGANS
Retention, beer, after: nux-v.
Asthmatic, drunkards: meph.
Difficult, beer, after: cocc.
Beer, agg: Mez., nux-v., rhus-t., spong.
Drunkards, of: Ars., coc-c., lach., stram.
Spirits, drinking: Arn., ferr., ign., lach., led., spong., stann., stram., zinc.
Wine: Acon., ant-t., arn., bor., ferr., ign., lach., led., stann., stram., Zinc.
Hemorrhage, drunkards, in: ars., hyos., nux-v., op.
- Whiskey, after: merc., puls.
- Wine, after: acon.
Oppression, wine amel.: acon.
Pain, wine, after: bor.
- Sides, wine: bor.
Palpitation, beer, after: sumb.
- Heart, wine: naja., nux-v.
Heat, wine, after: gin., zinc.
Itching, lower limbs, wine, after: psor.
- Foot, sole of, wine, after: psor.
Pain, wine: led., mez., zinc.
- Joints, wine, after: led.
- Foot, heel, wine, after: zinc.
- Nates, wine, after: zinc
- Drawing, knee, wine, after: benz-ac., zinc.
Restlessness, feet, beer, after: nat-m., sulph.
Trembling, drunkards, in: ars., bar-c., nux-v
- Brandy amel: plb.
Falling, beer, after: thea.
- Wine, after: thea
Sleepiness, beer, after: sulph., thea
- Wine, after: ail., carb-s.
Sleeplessness, wine, after abuse of: coff., fl-ac., nux-v.
yawning, wine, amel: nat-m.
Alcohol, abuse of: led., nux-v.
Drinking, beer: Bell., ferr., rhus-t., sulph.
- Wine: Ars., carb-v., fl-ac., gins., iod., nat-m., nux-v., sil.
Drinking, wine amel: acon., apis., con., lach., op., sulph-ac., thuj.
Eruptions, urticaria, wine, from: chlol.
Itching, drunkards: carb-v., lach., nux-v., sulph.
Chorea, wine agg: zinc.
Convulsions, drunkards, in: Glon., nux-v., ran-b.
Food, beer agg: Acon., aloe., ars., asaf., bell., bry., cadm., carb-s., chel., chin., chlol., coc-c., coloc., crot-t., eupho., ferr., ign., kali-br., led., lyc., mez., mur-ac., nux-v., puls., rhus-t., sep., sil., stann., staph., stram., sulph., teucr., verat.
Trembling, wine: con
- Homoeopathic Medicines: Rare medicines and tinctures for alcohol misuse:
- Asarum europaeum[8,9,10]: A remedy for nervous affections, loss of vital energy with excessive nerve sensitivity. Nervous irritability and elation. Always feels cold. Cold shivers from any emotion. Medicine suited for people of sedentary habits who always feel cold and alcoholics associated with gastric complaints. A great desire for alcohol. Flatulence, belching and vomiting. Horrible feeling at epigastrium on waking in the morning (after debauch). Nausea in alcoholics. a popular remedy in Russia for drunkards.
- Sulphuricum acidum[8,9,10,11]: Adapted to the light-haired; old people, especially women; flushes of heat in climacteric years or people who have gastric troubles from excessive use of alcohol and suited to people who have hereditary craving for alcohol. Great desire for alcohol. Weakness and exhaustion are its keynote symptom which seems to come from deep seated dyscrasia. There is great sense of internal trembling from head to toe. It is useful in alcoholics or drunkards who are in their last stage of life long after nux vomica has stopped to help. It helps in decreasing the desire for alcohol when there are following indication as Vomiting in morning, acidity in stomach, burning is esophagus and stomach, sour, acrid or foul belching.
- Quercus : It is one of the great remedies for effect of alcohol where there is association of spleen n liver; especially spleen. it is helpful in diminishing the craving for alcohol and can antidote the ill effects from alcohol misuse but it can not help in quitting the habit of alcohol. Patient is nervous, depressed and is incapable in stating his own case. Foul breathing as if consisting dung and feces is sign of chronic alcohol drinker due to undigested alcohol. Enlarged liver and spleen with pain in left hypochondriac region aggravated by stooping. Ascites due to affection of liver from prolonged use of alcohol. Fistula in ano in alcoholics. This medicine helps in increasing the urine flow which helps in diminishing the oedema. Tottering gait and trembling of hands. Face flushed.
- Strophanthus [8,9,12]: It has marked clinical effect on heart with additional to alcohol habits and tendency for oedema. Most of the condition caused due to ill-effect of alcohol, tobacco and tea. Patient has irritative humor. Anxiety and fears. It helps in disordered digestion, burning in esophagus to stomach with nausea without vomiting and diarrhea. It causes repugnance for alcohol. Irritable heart of tobacco and alcoholic users. Cardiac pain and difficult breathing. Chronic, nervous palpitations. Cardiac murmurs. This medicine helps in restoring the tone to a brittle tissue especially of heart muscles and valves of heart. Cystitis, UTIs. Hyperemia of kidneys. Generalized oedema due to cardiac affections.
- Kola: Neurasthenia. It helps in regulation of the circulation, cardiac rhythm and acts diuretically. A great medicine for weak heart. The remedy for the drinking habit. It promotes the appetite and digestion, and lessens the craving for liquor. Asthma. It Gives power to endure prolonged physical exertion without taking food and without feeling fatigued.
- Angelica atropurpurea: It produces disgust for liquor and thus helps in alcoholism. Homeopathic Angelica affects the spleen and liver and for atony of different organs. Enlarged spleen. Craves alcoholic drinks. Dyspepsia, nervous headaches, etc. Chronic bronchitis to increase expectoration of mucus.
- Ichthyolum- Useful in condition when nothing will stay on stomach because of alcoholism.
- Agaricus muscaricus: Helps to control the tremors when Nux fails. Delirium during alcohol use. Headaches of drunkards.
- Avena sativa: Nervousness, sleeplessness with delirium tremens in victim of alcoholism. Also useful in addicts of opium and cocaine habits.
- Ranunculus bulbous- It found that when given in tincture form it helps in calming attacks of delirium tremens.
Discussion And Conclusion
Alcohol misuse is a one of the major and most common problems in today’s era. But people do not come for help until they start to have medical issues or got indulge in legal issues. Alcohol misuse leads to difficulties in interpersonal as well as in professional lives. Homoeopathy is the holistic, non- toxic and dynamized approach and provides wonderful support to those who are alcohol addict by relieving its immediate symptoms, treating the underlying inherited, acquired, emotional and psychological cause. It stimulates the person’s body to deal with stress and illness. In managing the hazards of alcoholism, acute intoxication, withdrawal symptoms, homoeopathic medicines help in prevent and even cure the addicts.
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About the Author:
Dr. Ashok Yadav 1, dr. Sakshi Sharma2*, Dr. Rekha Sharma 2, Dr. Rishabh dixit3
1Head of Department, Department of Practice of Medicine, Dr. M.P.K. Homoeopathic Medical College, Hospital & Research Centre, Homoeopathy University, Jaipur.
2MD scholar, Department of Practice of Medicine, Dr. M.P.K. Homoeopathic Medical College, Hospital & Research Centre, Homoeopathy University, Jaipur.
3MD scholar, Department of Pharmacy, Dr. M.P.K. Homoeopathic Medical College, Hospital & Research Centre, Homoeopathy University, Jaipur.