Authors: Dr. Pramod kumar singh 1, Dr.Virendra chauhan2,Dr.Yudhishthir bhardwaj3, Dr. Bhupendra arya4
- Professor, HOD Dept. of Pharmacy (Hom.), DR. M.P.K. Homoeopathic Medical College Hospital & Research centre, Siapura, Jaipur, Rajasthan.
- Professor, Dept. of Practice of Medicine, DR. M.P.K. Homoeopathic Medical College Hospital & Research centre, Siapura, Jaipur, Rajasthan.
- PG Scholar, Department of homoeopathic pharmacy, DR. M.P.K. Homoeopathic Medical College Hospital & Research centre, Siapura, Jaipur, Rajasthan.
- PG Scholar, Department of Practice of Medicine, DR. M.P.K. Homoeopathic Medical College Hospital & Research centre, Siapura, Jaipur, Rajasthan.
Homeopathy has an impressive history of success in treating people for a wide variety of ailments, including mental health disorders. As it emphasizes treating the patient on the holistic plan so it is not only reduces the anxiety but also make the individual to feel better in other areas of functioning. This article is findout the therapeutic of homeopathic medicines in anxiety disorders and role of miasms in development of anxiety disorders.
Homoeopathy, Anxiety disorders, Depression, Miasm.
GAD-Generalized Anxiety Disorder, OCD- Obsessive compulsive disorder, PTSD- Post-traumatic stress disorder, SAD-social anxiety disorder, PD- panic disorder, PDA-Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia
Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent psychiatric disorders, and are associated with a high burden of illness. With a 12-month prevalence of 10.3%, specific phobias are the most common anxiety disorders, although persons suffering from isolated phobias rarely seek treatment. Panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (PDA) is the next most common type with a prevalence of 6.0%, followed by social anxiety disorder (SAD, also called social phobia; 2.7%) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; 2.2%). Women are 1.5 to two times more likely than men to receive a diagnosis of anxiety disorder.
The age of onset for anxiety disorders differs among the disorders. Separation anxiety disorder and specific phobia start during childhood, with a median age of onset of 7 years, followed by SAD (13 years), agoraphobia without panic attacks (20 years), and panic disorder (24 years). 1
DESCRIPTIONS OF THE ANXIETY DISORDERS
In the following sections we will describe each of the anxiety disorders listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994). For an accompanying list of signs and symptoms see Table 1.2
Table 1. Signs and Symptoms of Adolescent Anxiety Disorders
|Key Diagnostic Feature
|Other Criteria for the Disorder
|Other Relevant Clinical Signs and Symptoms
|The occurrence of spontaneous panic attacks. These are paroxysms of fear or anxiety associated with somatic symptoms, such as palpitations or shortness of breath.
|Panic attacks must be recurrent and must be associated with either concern about additional attacks, worry about the implication of the attacks, or changes in behavior. Panic disorder is frequently associated with agoraphobia, or anxiety about being in places where escape might be difficult.
|Spontaneous panic attacks are very rare before puberty. Typical developmental course for progressive forms of the disorder involves initial development of isolated spontaneous panic attacks around puberty, followed by recurrent panic attacks, and then agoraphobia in adulthood. This process can take years to unfold across maturation from adolescence to adulthood.
|Social anxiety disorder
|The occurrence of extreme fear in social situations in which an individual is exposed to unfamiliar people
|Exposure to social situations provokes anxiety that is associated with severe distress or impairment. The individual must show the capacity for age-appropriate social relationships.
|This condition typically develops in late childhood or early adolescence. The disorder is associated with shyness or other subclinical behavioral features, such as certain temperamental types.
|Separation anxiety disorder
|Extreme anxiety about being separated from home or from an individual to whom a child is attached
|The anxiety is associated with either distress upon separation, worry about harm to an attachment figure, avoidance of situations requiring separation, or physical complaints when separation is anticipated.
|This condition is among the most prevalent mental disorders in children. The condition typically develops in early childhood, showing high rates of remission between childhood and adolescence. Some data suggest a familial or longitudinal association with panic disorder in adults.
|Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)
|Recurrent, persistent, intrusive, anxiety-provoking thoughts (obsessions) or repetitive acts (compulsions) that a person feels driven to perform
|This pattern of intrusive thoughts or acts is recognized as unreasonable and consumes an hour of each day. These symptoms produce significant interference or distress.
|This condition typically presents with stereotyped thoughts or acts. These might include concerns that the individual is in some way dirty or that the person has sinned. The disorder is frequently associated with tics and attention deficit disorder during childhood.
|Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
|Following exposure to trauma, in the form of a frightening event, an individual develops recurrent reexperiencing of the event, attempts to avoid stimuli associated with the event, and develops signs of increased arousal.
|Reexperiencing can involve flashbacks, nightmares, or images. Avoidance can involve changes in behavior, changes in cognition, or new-onset feelings of detachment. Increased arousal can involve insomnia, exaggerated startle, or irritability.
|PTSD is associated with many comorbid disorders, including major depression, other anxiety disorders, and behavior disorders. Different types of traumas may involve different symptomatic manifestations. For example, symptoms may differ in acute vs. chronic trauma.
|Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
|A pattern of excessive worry on most days for a period of 6 months. This worry is difficult to control.
|Worry is characterized as apprehension when anticipating an upcoming feared event. Worry is associated with restlessness, fatigue, reduced concentration, or difficulty falling asleep.
|GAD shows very high rates of comorbidity with a range of conditions, particularly anxiety disorders. In clinical settings, GAD virtually never presents as an isolated condition but is complicated by another comorbid disorder. Beyond the relationship with other anxiety disorders, GAD shows an unusually strong association with major depression.
|Marked and excessive fear of a specific object, such that exposure to the object precipitates extreme anxiety
|The fear either causes avoidance that interferes with functioning or produces marked distress in the individual.
|Specific phobia generally produces lower levels of impairment than other anxiety disorders. Phobias can be divided according to the nature of the feared object into various types, including animal type, natural-environment type, blood-injury type, or situational type
Homeopathic Understanding of Mental Illness
Before discussing the anxiety disorders, it is very necessary to consider the concept of anxiety and its heterogeneity. Anxiety express to multiple mental and physiological phenomena, including a person’s conscious state of worry over a future undesirable event, or terror of a genuine situation.2
Homeopaths base virtually every homeopathic prescription on the physical and psychological symptoms of the ill person. Psychological symptoms often play an important role in the selection of the accurate remedy.3
Aconitum: This remedy is useful for the anxiety or panic state after an earthquake, tornado, fire, or other natural disaster, car accident.
Gelsemium: is useful for performance anxiety, It is particularly indicated when the person feels not able to face any challenge (I can’t cope), feels or acts cowardly (I give up), and feels “paralyzed” from anticipation and fear. Physically, these people tend to feel weakness, sleepiness, mental dullness, trouble and apathy.
Staphysagria: is indicated during or after an abusive relationship, especially when the person experiences much humiliation, which then results in anger and indignation. They may tremble, throw things, lose their voice, or suffer from many physical ailments, especially headaches, indigestion, urinary complaints, or skin diseases.
Argentum nitricum: is also for performance anxiety. Their greatest fear is that they don’t know what will happen. They become restless and impulsive and may do rash things. Physically, they suffer from diarrhea or flatulence. These people may crave sweet foods, and they sometimes aggravate them.
Lycopodium: like Argentum Nitricum, is useful for bloating from anticipatory anxiety and a craving for sweets, but this remedy is more known for having a lack of self-confidence that is compensated for by a haughtiness and frequent boasting. anxiety< Being alone, >warm drinks.
Arnica: should be considered person’s anxiety is the result of financial loss or a business failure, and the person feels emotionally “bruised” from the experience (this medicine is the leading remedy for bruises). The person may be when in a state of shock, a condition in which the person denies that anything is wrong, even though the person’s behavior and persistent thoughts suggest otherwise.
Kali phosphoricum: This is one of homeopathy’s great “nerve” remedies. It is a remedy for people who may need more “nerve” or more of a backbone. physical ailments <from worry, from overwork, and from getting overexcited. They are nervous, frightened, stressed and they fear that they may have a nervous breakdown.
Ignatia: This is the leading remedy in homeopathy for depression, especially after the break-up of a relationship, death of a loved one, shocks, grief, loss of a job, or an experience of abuse. This results in uncontrollable sobbing, or sometimes intercurrent crying and laughing, with a higher degree of intensity. They tend to be on an emotional roller-coaster with their alternating moods.
Staphysagria: People who need this remedy tend to have experienced great humiliation, insult, or loss of pride. They experience low self-esteem, and they are no longer able to hold in their emotions. they feel depressed after a bout of anger. They blame themselves and lash out at whoever hurt them. This remedy is usually indicated during or after an abusive relationship. They tend to have strong sexual desires but try to keep them in control (may lead them to think more about sexual matters)..
Pulsatilla (windflower): This is remedy for people who weep easily, who feel better after crying, are emotional, extremely clingy, strongly desire to sympathy and consolation, tend to be dependent upon others, and feel forsaken. People who need this remedy don’t sob but instead experience a type of sweet crying that inspires others to hold and hug them. They sometimes become childlike and may want their mommy.
Natrum muriaticum: N.M person are stoic, holding in and not showing their emotions. They rarely cry in front of others, and don’t like sympathy or consolation from others and music. When alone, however, they sob uncontrollably. These people hold bitterness for a long time. They have a tendency to feel betrayed or disappointed by the person she/he trusts, have sometimes had an inadequate bonding with mother or father (or both), and dwell on past grievances or disagreeable situations.
Calcarea carbonica (calcium carbonate):C.C patient are fair, fatty and flabby. These people don’t go out much (they’re home-bodies), except to specific “regular” places. They handle depression by doing chores or simple jobs or by being “responsible.” They feel overwhelmed and burdened by bad news, and don’t like to do new things or take any risks. People who need this remedy tend to be more concerned about others’ needs than their own.
Sepia: People who feel better emotionally after exercise and have some of the symptoms listed below should consider this remedy. They are indifferent, physically exhausted, except when they exercise. They believe that they are unattractive (and tend to dwell on this). They experience tension between their relationship and their work, usually spending more time and energy at work. They have a tendency to experience depression prior to or during menstruation and during menopause.
Aurum metalicum: When a previously ambitious, competent person begins performing poorly and then becomes depressed, or even suicidal, consider this remedy. People who benefit from this remedy tend to be extremely serious, peevish, aloof, hard driving, intimidating, and arrogant, until something goes wrong in their lives and they begin to feel worthless and despondent about everything. They feel easily offended and may feel humiliated when criticized. They may also experience high blood and possibly have heart disease. They have numerous physical and emotional symptoms that are worse at pressure night. oversensitive to noise, excitement, confusion.
Phosphoricum acidum: These people are uninterest in things that previously interested them most. They experience emotional neutrality (lack of feeling) and a sense of emptiness inside. They become mental dull, weak, forgetful and are averse to business. Exercise causes greater fatigue and depression. They tend to brood over disappointments and experience unrequited love. They tend to experience despair due to long-term depressive state.
ROLE OF MIASM IN DEVELOPMENT OF MENTAL DISORDERS:
The medicinal management of psychological problems using homoeopathy is more convenient and useful. The anxiety disorders are a group of psychological disturbances that share excessive fear, anxiety and related behaviour disturbances.7 Here I am trying the holistic method of treatment and the role of miasm in development of anxiety disorders in table 2.8
|Anxious and fearful.
|Suspicious and jealous.
|Destructive and melancholic.
|Irritability with anxiety
|Irritability explodes into anger the patient may throw things and restlessness results.
|Irritability with cruelty.
|Thoughtful but no practical sense
|Thoughtfulness focused for their own personal benefits
|Vanishing of thoughts
|Lack of concentration and weakness of memory
|Incoordination in concentration and absentmindedness
|Total destruction of concentration, forgetful Dullness is expressed as a weakness in perception.
|Wariness of life
|Tendency to exploit everything from life
|Loathing of life
|Hallucinations and deliriums
|Sadness and depression
|Irascibility, rudeness and ill manners
|Sentimental and closed-mouthed
|Initiates many schemes but there are always loop-holes and plans are seldom realised. They may plan a robbery but it is unlikely to happen.
|Cunning and practical and benefits at the expense of others. They can fill the loopholes and benefit from crime without appearing to be actually present.
|Attacks the guard and is the hired criminal. These patients fail to realise that if they are caught they will be sent to prison and that there will be no one to look after their family!
|The memory is poor but the patient is studious and once they have learn their subject they will remember it.
|An active memory and are able to record everything the journalist type.
|Patients cannot remember recent happenings but can recall past events in chronological order.
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