ABSTRACT- Conjunctivitis is a common eye condition with reason to visit a doctor. Worldwide high number of cases observed and a good amont of health budget is spent in it’s treatment. This article helps in providing information regarding the disease condition , etiology, classification, it’s homoeopathic management including aspects are a few indicated medicines and repertorization.
INTRODUCTION– It is a condition characterized by conjunctival tissue being inflamed and swollen and engorgement of blood vessels, eye discharge (watery or/and mucoid) and pain mostly being associated.
Term – ‘Conjunctiv’ refers to ‘conjunctiva’ and ‘itis’ to ‘inflammation’. Also known as Pink Eye . A high frequency of cases seen recently in different parts of India ,turning to be like an epidemic ,as mentioned in various survey reports , have been observed since July and cases still continues to surge furthermore.
In India, rainy season , floods, high populated area ,improper hygine practise ,etc. are the most common reason for the spread of conjunctivitis.
The infecting agent can survive for long on different surface areas (door handles ,towel,clothes,etc) making it favourable for it’s rapid spread. Direct Contact playing the major role in it’s spread though Indirect contact could be airborne due to improper ventillaion as various studies have found.
TYPES– Conjunctivitis can be classified based on Chronicity i.e. acute,subacute & chronic ;on Etiology i.e. infectious(viral or bacterial) and non-infectious (allergic) , rarely others(fungal or protozoal); Severity ;nearby Tissue invovlment such as margins of eyelid,cornea .
It can also be associated with nutritional deficiency or underlying disease condition immunogenic or metabolic.
VIRAL- Herpes , Adenovirus,..
BACTERIAL- Staphylococcus A. ,Streptococcus Pneumoniae , Haemophilus Aegypti,..
ALLERGEN- any toxic substance ,..
OTHERS- FUNGAL, PROTOZOAL( Chlamydia trachomatis)
Red or pink color of the white part of the eyes
Swelling of conjunctiva(covering white part of eye & inner eyelid)
Gritty senasation, as if some foreign body under eyelid with urge to rub the eye
Itching , irritation and/or burning
Discharge (pus or mucous)
Crusting of eyelids or lashes esp. in morning
+Though symptoms might depend on cause, as
- Bacterial Conjunctivitis- ass. commonly with discharge(pus) with sticking eyelids , ear infection can occur sometimes
- Viral Conjunctivitis- watery discharge seen usually, can be unilateral and may spread to other eye. Respiratory symptoms could be associated.
- Allergic Conjunctivitis- symptoms commonly seen are itching, tearing and swelling in both eyes usually . Other may be itchy nose,sneezing, scratchy throat
Progress of conjunctivitis can further cause photophobia and drop of vision.
DIAGNOSIS- Since conjunctivitis has redness but not all red eye are conjunctivitis. A Doctor on the basis of symptoms , patient’s history and clinical examination under bright light ,after evaluating external structures , can determine whether it is viral , bacterial or allergic . Redness and swelling being the common yet other symptoms can help in differentiating the cause . Still few investigation are required to make a firm diagnosis.
To determine the severity slit lamp examination helps to rule out corneal involvement and presence of any membrane, papillae or follicles on the conjunctiva.
Patch test to identify the allergen, in allergic conjunctivitits.
Bacterial culture of the ocular discharge can be done in contagious and risky cases.
- A. IRITIS
- LESIONS OF CORNEA
- A. CONGESTIVE GLAUCOMA
MANAGEMENT & HOMOEOPATHIC TREATMENT-
-Maintaining personal hygiene
-Avoiding rubbing eyes
-It is recommended to wash eye with cold water
– Keeping away the maintaining cause (allergen)
-Avoid crowded places , public swimming pools, etc
Homoeopathy provides natural treatment with early recovery from all symptoms and with no side effects .
Medicines indicated for conjunctivitis are:
- EUPHRASIA– Conjuctivitis with marked redness and swelling with discharge being watery , acrid and intense itching.
- BELLADONA– Eye congestion well marked with intense redness and dry looking. Often indicated.
- ALLIUM CEPA- When eyes discharge are bland accompanied with nasal discharge and sneezing
- ARGENTUM NITRICUM- Is to be prescribed when discharges are mucopurulent and eyelashes get agglutinated and sticky(esp. at night)
- CALCAREA SULPH- When eye discharge are thick and yellow colored.
Top-grade medicines in cases of conjunctivitis.
On Repertorizing via synthesis mobile software we find some important rubrics which can be chosen and other marked rubrics could be added as per case.
+ EYE; DISCOLORATION, red
+ EYE; INFLAMMATION, conjunctiva
+ EYE; OPENING the lids; difficult, morning
+ EYE; AGGLUTINATED
+ EYE; PAIN; sand; as from
+ EYE; DISCHARGES, watery
+ EYE; DISCHARGES, acrid
+ EYE; DISCHARGES, bland
+ EYE; DISCHARGES, thick
+ EYE; DISCHARGES, purulent
+ EYE; DISCHARGES, white
+ EYE; DISCHARGES, yellow
+ EYE; DISCHARGES, copious
1. B.M.CHATTERJEE, HAND BOOK OF OPTHALMOLOGY, SIXTH EDITION , New Delhi, S. k Jain For M]CBS Publisher & Distributors, Reprint 2004, page no 45-56
2. Azari AA, Arabi A. Conjunctivitis: A Systematic Review. J Ophthalmic Vis Res. 2020 Aug 6;15(3):372-395. doi: 10.18502/jovr.v15i3.7456. PMID: 32864068; PMCID: PMC7431717.
3. Software used- Synthesis Homoeopathic Repertory Mobile Software, Zeus Soft sprl
About the Author:
Dr. SHUBHAM SHARMA Postgraduate Trainee
Department of Homoeopathic Repertory Govt. Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital, Ayush Parisar, Near Kaliasot Dam, Bhopal, India