There may be life beyond dopamine therapy for the six crore –odd parkinson’s in the country . It is a degenerative disorder of the brain that results in impairment of motor skills and other functions . though the disease is effectively managed with medicine , deep brain stimulation has also proved beneficial in its cure .
Stem cells can be harvested either from patients bone marrow or from dead foetus or any other source . regions of brain affected by the disease : Lateral ventrical , cerebrum , cortex , caudate , nucleus , putamen , midbrain , pons .
The disease is caused when key brain cells that produce message –carrying chemical dopamine die off , symptoms start with the patients trembling and he/she can end up paralyzed . After alzheimer’s , parkinson’s is the second most common neuro degenerative disorder . It is estimated that world wide one percent above 65 years and 3 % people above the age of 80 are affected by it .”the reason for the disease is not known , but with timely medical intervention , degeneration can be delayed , but factors like genetic composition and environmental toxins are found to be responsible for the disease “ ,
Deliberating on the new trends in the treatment of parkinson’s , experts cautioned that “ hype should be kept aware from hope “ as trials are in progress a clinical syndrome caused by lesions in basal nuclei of the brain , manifesting with the triad of hypokinesia ( impairment of voluntary movement ) rigidity and tremors , the nigrostriatal path ways utilize dopamine as a neurotransmitter ; thus parkinsonism is associated with dopamine deficiency . the exact patho physiology is not completely defined , ¾ cases are paralysis agitans (also called idiopathic parkinsonism is often erroneously attributed to cerebral atherosclerosis , most patients with parkinson’s show of signs of cerebral atherosclerosis but it is essentially co-existing .
It may some times follow a single head injury ; most often a complication of repeated head injury ( as in boxers ) , other infrequent causes ; cerebral tumors , meningiomas meningovascular syphilis , carbon monoxide poisoning etc.,
CLINICAL FEATURES :
Tremor is the first complaint for which the patient seeks advice , it first involves fingers and spreads proximally , it may extend to tongue and legs . Tremor at rest and often reduced during purposive activities , stress and embarrassment aggravate the amplitude of tremor , tremor of head is rare .
RIGIDITY : Resistance to passive movement is increased through out range of movement of a joint . the patient is ultimately flexed at neck , hips , elbows and knees .
HYPOKINESIS : It is the most disabling feature and comprises a delay in initiation of movements together with paucity , slowness and lack of precision . The insidious onset often manifested by illegibility of the hand writing and gradual reduction in size of letters , then fastening buttons and laces and feeding get impaired ; even turning over in bed , rising from chairs starting to walk becomes difficult for the patient , loss of normal arm swinging when walking is a very early sign .
Next change is in gait . steps start and shuffling , walking slow ; periods of uncontrolled acceleration when walking down wards ( festination gait ) .
Normal emotional movements of the face start changing to mask facies ; blinking reduced ; accomadation reflex of pupil impaired ; changes in speech – dysarthria , delayed initiation of speech and loss of voice volume .
HOMOEOPATHIC MEDICINES :
Causticum : trembling , numbness , weakness of limbs started ascending upwards with difficulty in walking , difficulty in writing , lifting tremors , tremors in hand and feet , numbness started with trembling of the fingers , trembling of hands and feet , left sided sciatica with numbness , heaviness and weakness , unsteadiness of muscles of forearm and hand , numbness , loss of sensation in hands , contracted tendons , weak ankles can not walk with out suffering , slow in learning to walk , unsteady walking and easily falling .
Gelsemium : complete motor paralysis , rather functional than organic in origin , parkinson’s of the ocular muscles ptosis the speech is thick from paretic conditions of the tongue . Parkinson from emotions jerking , cramps , electric current like pain , eye lids fall ptosis .