Authors: Dr. Pramod Singh(1) Dr. Astha Mathur(2) Dr. Junaid Ahmad(3) Dr. Geeta Sharma(3)
- Head of Department of Homoeopathic pharmacy, HOMOEOPATHIC UNIVERSITY, JAIPUR.
- Assistant Professor Department of Homoeopathic pharmacy, Dr. M.P.K. Homoeopathic Medical College, Hospital & Research Centre, Saipura, Jaipur
- MD scholar, Department of Homoeopathic pharmacy, HOMOEOPATHIC UNIVERSITY, JAIPUR.
India’s immense biological diversity represents about 7% of world’s flora and 6.5% of world’s fauna. About 62 % animals in India are endemic to the country. India is one of the 12 countries identified as mega centres of biological diversity. As per the State Forest Report 1999, based on visual and satellite data from IRS-1B, 1C and 1D, the total forest cover of India is 637,293 sq. km. It is 19.39 % of the total geographic area of the country. It comprises about 64 million hectares. Indian flora comprises about 15,000 flowering plants of which roughly around 1,500 plant species are threatened. Mammalian fauna of India is 372 species with 63% in Assam. India’s 1228 bird species represent about 13% of world’s total. Reptilian and amphibian fauna includes 446 and 204 species respectively. Since the world has a vast range of organisms, identifying the useful, as well as harmful living beings is a need. Differentiating, grouping and giving names to living things has been an ancient activity of every human culture. Without proper classification it would be impossible to deal with enor-mous diversity of life forms.(1)
KEYWORDS:-Zoology, Homoeopathy, Phylum, Non Chordata, Chordata.
A considerable part of the Homoeopathic materia medica consists of medicines derived from the animal kingdom. Animal remedies present a group picture, which have some similarities with the plant families and some with the mineral groups. They do not affect the structure in the same way as the mineral remedies. The animal kingdom is prone to crisis and violence, reflecting energetic and rapidly moving states. They are suitable for very destructive forms of acute and chronic diseases. The animal kingdom is all about survival-to be the prey or the predator. Thus, we find some of the most basic emotions in the animal kingdom. How we relate to one another and compete for our existence is the basic theme of the animal kingdom. As there are various species within the animal kingdom, there are different behaviours. The study of zoology and Homoeopathy is vast. To understand the nature of animal remedies, we must study the nature of the animals and their habitats. Remedies derived from the animal kingdom act energetically and rapidly.They vary in intensity from the fatal snake bite to corals, sponges, etc. Animal temperament is competitive, instinctive, possessive, jealous and aggressive especially when cornered. They possess animal magnetism and vitality.(2)
Animals are divide into two grops on the bases of their body structure.(3)
- Non Chordata
1. Non Chordata:-
Non-chordates do not possess a dorsal supporting rod.They show radial or bilateral symmetry.The skleton in these animals is absent if present, it is always external and is made up of calcium carbonate and chitin.The heart, if present, is dorsal in position.
A. Phylum Porifera:-
This includes sponges.They are mostly marine but a fresh water.They are the simplest multicellular organisims where in cells are loosely held together and do not form tissues.Sponges are of different shapes and sizes.They are sessile. There are pores all over body.A charectristic canal system for the passageof water is seen.The skeleton is made up of calcareous or siliceous spicules or spongin fibers.Sexual as well as asexual reproduction is seen.
- Badiaga:- (Fresh water sponge) – Tincture of dried sponge gatherd in autumn.
- SpongiaTosta:- (Comman Sponge) – whole body incuding skeleton roasted till brown and febrile.
B. Phylum Coelenterata (Cnidaria):-
This includes hydra, jellyfish, sea anemone and corals.They show radial symmetry and possestentacles.Their body is supplied with special stinging cells (cnidoblasts).A cavity is seen in the centre of the body known as coelenteron.It is the gastrovascular cavity.Reproduction is asexual in certain forms and sexual in others.
- Medusa:- (Jelly fish) – Tincture of living animal taken in summer.
- Physalia:– (Portuguese man-of-war) – Tincture of living animal.
- Corolliumrubrum – Red coral.
C. Phylum Annelida (Segmented worms):-
These includes earthworms, leeches, neveis,etc.They occur in the moist soil, fresh water and sea.They are elongated, segmented and bilaterally symmetrical.These are the first animals with a true body cavity (coelam).The locomotive organs are called setae or parapodia, found laterally.Reproduction is by sexual means. Sexes are either separate.
- Sanguisuga:-Hirudo, The leech- tincture of the living animal.
Includes muscles, conches, octopus, etc. It includes aquatic forms. The size varies from a microscopic form to giant forms. They have soft and unsegmented bodies. Body is divided into three regions: Head, dorsal visceral mass and ventral foot. Outer surface is covered by a hard calcareous shell. Respiration is by gill called tenidia. The sexes are separate.
- Helix Tosta:- Toasted Snail
- Murex Purpurea:- Purple-Fish – Trituration of fresh juice
- CalcareaCalcinata:- Calcinated oyster shell
- Pecten:- Scallop
- Sepia:-Cuttle fish- Trituration of the dried inky juice found in bag – like structure in the abdomen.
E. Phylum Echinodermata (Spiny Skinned):-
It includes starfish, brittle star, sea urchin, sea cucumber, etc. They are all marine, gregarious (living in groups) and free-living animals. They may be star-like, spherical or elongated. Body surface is covered all over by calcareous spines. Their symmetry is radial in adults but bilateral in larvae. These are unsegmented. Their body cavity is modified into a water-vascular system with a tube like outward extension for locomotion, called tubefeet.
- Asteriasrubens:- Star-fish – Tincture of fish
F. Phylum Arthopoda:-
It is the largest phylum which includes prawns, shrimps, insects, spiders and scorpions. They exist on land and in water (fresh and marine). They may be free living or parasitic. They possess jointed legs. The body is segmented and the segments are grouped into two regions – Cephalothorax (head and thorax together) and abdomen or three regions – head, Thorax and abdomen. The anterior part of the body forms a distinct head, bearing sense organs and brain. The exoskelaton is chitinous and jointed. Body cavity is reduced and filled with blood and is homocoel. Respiration is through gills, tracheae, booklungs, etc. sexes are seprate.
- Armadillo Officinalis:- Sow big, sow louse – Tincture of living animals.
- AstacusFluviatilis:- Crawfish or river crab – Tincture from whole animal.
- Homarus:- Lobster – Trituraion of the digesting fluid of the lobster – Trituration of the digesting fluid of the lobster, a thick reddish offensive liquid contained in a sac situated at the back of the mouth.
- Limulus Cyclopus:- King carb – Trituration of the dried blood.
- Scolopendra:- Centipede – Tincture of ncture of living animals.
- Araneadiadema:- The cross spider – Tincture of live spider.
- Araniascinencia:- Grey spider found in Kentucky on old walls that does not spin a web – Tincture of live spider.
- Aranearumtela:- Cobweb of black spider found in barns, cellars and dark places.
- Araneinum:- Juice of greasy spider Araneascinencia.
- Buthusaustralis:- Algerian Scorpion – Tincture of venom.
- CenturoidesElegans:- Scorpion – Tincture of poison
- Latrodectus katipo:- Poison spider – tincture of poison
- Latrodectusmactans:- Black widow spider – Tincture of living spider
- Mygalelasiodora:- Black cuban spider – Tincture of living Spider.
- Scorpioeuropus:- Scorpion
- TarentulaHispanica:- Spanish spider – Tincture of living spider.
- TheridionCurassavicum:- Orange spider – Tincture of the living spider.
- Trombidium:- A parasitefound singly or in groups upon the comman housefly.
- Aphis chenopodiiglauci :-Aphidus grown on the Chenopodiumglaucum.
- ApisMellifica :- Honeybee – Tincture of live bees.
- ApiumVivus :- Poison of honeybee.
- BlattaAmericana :- American cockroach – Trituration of live insect.
- Blattaorientalis:- Indian cockroach – Trituration of live insect.
- Bombyx :- Procession moth – Tincture of live caterpillars.
- Cantharis :- Spanish fly – Tincture of whole dried fly.
- CimexAsanthia :- Bedbug
- Coccinella :- Ladybird beetle – Tincture of freshly crushed beetles.
- Cocuscacti :- Cochineal insect – an insect infesting cactus plants. The dried bodies of the fremale insects are used for making a tincture or trituration.
- UlexMusca :- Culex mosquito
- Doryphora :- Colorado beetle – Tincture prepared by covering crushed live beetles with alcohol.
- Formica rufa :- The Red ant – Tincture from crushed live ants.
- Pediculuscapitis :- Head louse – Tincture of the insects.
- Pulex irritants :- Comman flea
- Vespa Crabro :- Wasp, European Hornet – Tincture of the living insects.
2. Chordata :-
This constitutes the most advance group of animals. The distinctive charectors of this group are: presence of notochord at some stage of life, hollow dorsal nerve cord, gill slites at some stage of life and tell behind the anal opening.
These are cold blooded aquatic vertebrates, found in both fresh water and sea water. Body is streamlined, provided with both paired and unpaired fins. Respiration is done by gills.
- Serum anguillarichthotoxin :- Eel serum – Serum of the eel.
- Gadusmorrhua :- Cod – Trituration of first cervical vertebra of the fish.
- Oleumjecorisaselli :- Cod liver oil – tincture of the oil obtained from the liver of cod.
- Pyrarara :- River fish (Nosode)
Class Amphibia includes frogs, toads, newts and salamanders. They live in fresh water and moist grounds. These are cold-blooded animals that live in water as well as on land. Skin and lungs are important respiratory organs. Heart is three chambered.
- Buforana :- Toad – Solution in rectified spirit of poison expressed from cutaneous glands.
Class Reptilia includes lizards, snakes, crocodiles, tortoises. They are mostly terrestrial and live in warmer regions. Body is covered with scales. Body is divided into head, neck, trunk and tail. Eggs are covered with a hard shell. They have two pairs of pentadactyle (five digits) limbs except in snakes and a few lizards.
- Amphisbaena Vermicularis :- Snake-like-Lizard – Jaw, containing poison is triturated.
- Heloderma :- Gila monster – Trituration of venom.
- LacertaAgilis :- Green Lizard – Tincture of whole animal.
- BothropsLanceolatus :- Yellow viper – solution of the poison in glycerine.
- Bungarusfasciatus :- Banded krait.
- Cenchriscontortrix :- Copperhead snake of north America – Solution of venom.
- Chelone :-Snake-head or Turtle-head.
- Crotaluscascavella :-Brazillian Rattle-snake – Trituration of poison.
- Crotalushorridus :- North American Rattle-snake – trituration of venom.
- Elapscorallinus:- Brazilian coral snake – poison pressed from the venom sac of the living snake is triturated.
- Lachesistrigonocephalus :- Surukuku snake
- Najatripudians :- Indian hooded snake – trituration of the fresh venom.
- Toxicophis :- Moccasin Snake.
- Vipera :-CommanVipper – Attenuations of the venom.
Class Aves (Birds) are found all over the world.Size ranges from the smallest humming bird to the largest ostrich. Forelimbs are modified into wings. Body is covered with feathers. The skeleton is very light which aids in flying. Mouth is surrounded by a beak modified for different purposes. Respiration is by lungs only. Heart is four chambered in birds.
- Calcareaovitestae :- Egg-shell – trituration of the shell, not including its lining membrane.
- Ovigallinaepellicula :- Fresh membrane of the Shell of a hen’s egg.
Class Mammalia are the most evolved amongst organisms.These are divided into three groups, namely:
- Monotremes or egg-laying mammals, like the duck-billed platypus.
- Marsupials or pouched mammals like the Kangaroo.
- Placental mammals or true mammals, like the deer, mouse, elephant, man, etc.
Mammals are warm blooded and are viviparous.Mammals have a palate, A pair of pinnae or external ears, A diaphragm seprating the chest and abdomen, uro genital organs to facilitate internal fertilization and epidermal hair on the skin. The cerebrum of the brain is enourmously developed and the heart is four chambered.The mammals are divided into 16 orders; The primates represent the order to which we belong. Sebaceous glands and a muscular diaphragm are found only in mammals.
- Carbo Animalis :- Animal charcol – Made from charred ox-hide.
- Castor equi :- Rudimentary thumbnail of horse. A small, Flat, oblong-oval horn, breaking off in scales growing on inner side of leg – Scales triturated.
- Castoreum :- The Beaver – Tincture of secretion found in preputial sacs of beaver.
- Cervus brazillians :-Brazillians deer – Trituration of fresh hide covered with hair.
- Feltauri :- Ox gall (Sarcode) – Trituration of gall.
- Hippomanes :- (Nosode) – Prepared from a sticky mucoid substance of ruinous odour floating in the amniotic fluid of mare. It is also found attached to the membrane of the foetal organ of the mare in the last month of pregnancy.
- Ingluvin :- Gizzard of a Fowl.
- Mephitis :- Skunk
- Moschus :- Musk deer – trituration of inspissated secretion contained in preputial follicles.
- OleumAnimale :- Dippel’s oil, Bone-naptha
- Oophorinum :- Ovarian extract (sarcode) – Trituration of expressed juice of ovary of sheep or cow.
- Orchitinum :- Testicular extract (sarcode)
- Pulmovulpis :- Fresh lung of wolf or fox (sarcode).
- Sphingurus :- Tree Porcupine – Trituration of prickles taken from one of the sides.
- Vulpishepar :- Fresh liver of fox.
F. Lacs (Milk and milk products) –Sarcodes:-
- Koumyss :- Fermentation from Ass’s milk.
- Lac Caninum :- Bitch’s milk.
- Lac Defloratum :- Skimmed cow’s milk.
- Lac felinum :- cat’s milk.
- Lac Vaccinifloc :- Cream.
- Lac Vaccinum :- Cow’s milk.
- Lac VaccinumCoagulatum :- Curds.
Collection of Drugs Of Animal Origin:-
Process of collection of a
drug substance is an important part of preparing a drug as it anures
the genuinity of a drug. According to § 264, Hahnemann holds, “The true physician must be provided with genuine medicine of impaired strength so that he may be able to rely upon their therapeutic power.” In § 66 of the Organon, he also emphasizes that, “Substances belonging to the animal and vegetable kingdoms possess their medicinal qualities. As such, Hahnemann advices us to use fresh animal and vegetable drug substances.(4)
- Animal and their parts or products must be carefully and throughly identified and collected by a qualified Zoologist.
- Animals must be healthy, hygiene and from good stock.
- Secretions and excretions must be collected from animals that are certified healthy by veterinary physicians.
- When animal substances are not available nearby, they should be procured from reliable sources.
- Animal drugs are procured from wild or domestic animals that are either hunted or fished. Drugs made from insects are either collected from wild insects or they are cultivated by providing food, shelter and optimum conditions for their growth. Venoms are collected from the wild or from snake farms.
- If the specimens have to be stored before use, they should be protected from light, heat, moisture and other contaminants.
- Venoms are obtained from serological laboratories and are quickly dry-freezed and pre-served in glycerine.
- Crotalus horridus, Naja tripudians, Vipera-
Venom is procured by compressing the gland when the serpent is either pinioned in a frame or under the influence of chloroform .
- Elapscorallinus –
The venom is collected by compressing a butter-plate against the fangs or by letting the snake bite through a cloth covering a wide-mouth bottle.
- Lachesis –
The living snake is stunned with a blow; the venom is then collected on sugar of milk by pressing the poison fang upwards against the bag.
- BufoRana –
The live animal is fastened to a slab of cork by four strong pins stuck through the webs of the feet. The poles of an induction apparatus in action are slowly drawn over the back of the animal, whereupon the poison very soon issues from the dorsal glands. The poison is removed with small horn knife and triturated.
- Cantharis –
In may or june when the insects swarm upon the trees, they are collected in the morning at sunrise, when they are torpid from the cold of the night and easily let go their hold.Persons with their faces protected by masks and their hand with gloves, shake the trees or beat them with poles.The insects are collected as they fall upon linen cloths spread underneath.They are then exposed in sieves to the vapor of boiling vinegar and having been thus deprived of life, are dried in the sun or in apartments heated by stoves.
A classification is constructed by grouping the animals on the basis of degree of similarities among them. The process of classification is not static but changes continually in the light of new information and ideas and the addition of new species are going on continually. There are two distinct processes in the classification, which are frequently carried out at the same time, ie, the establishment of equivalent features of the object to be classified and their grouping on the basis of their features.
- Chandran AF, Gayathri Rani VM, Sekar T.T. Zoology Higher Secondary – First Year. 2nd ed. Tamilnadu: Tamil Nadu Textbook Corporation;2005.
- Patil JD. Group Study in Homoeopathic Materia Medica. 2nd Ed. 2018. . New Delhi: B Jain Publishers Pvt Ltd; 2018.
- GoelS. Art and Science of Homoeopathic Pharmacy. 2nd ed. Narayana publishers;2007
- Benerjee DD. Augmented
Textbook of Homoeopathic Pharmacy. 2nded. New Delhi: B Jain Publishers Pvt Ltd.; 2015.