● Word Meaning
● H.A.Roberts View
● Clinical Significance
The word temperament is derived from A latin word “temperare” which means to temper or moderate.
▪ The psycho-physical personality peculiar to an individual influencing his metabolic
process, manner of thought and action.
▪ Temperament means the internal constitution or state, disposition type of physical
constitution and internal organization.
▪ It is a dormant dynamic state resting on the constitution of the subject.
▪ In Aristotle’s philosophy, temperament was an encompassing term defining the
particular nature of a person in body and soul.
⇨ Flury based his method of homoeopathic drug diagnosis on comprehensive view
⇨ Dorcsi developed this further, relating particular drugs to the basic skin type of a
⮚ It is the dynamic, pathophysiological and characteristic expression of the
individual it is partly determined by genes but broadly influenced by the
⮚ It is true that genetic tendency child derives from the parents, doesn’t yield to any
treatment but the physiological disturbances which disturb the quality of life can
be modified by the perfectly selected simulium.
⮚ Temperament predisposes to certain morbific reactions and if not controlled,
develops their reactions under certain conditions.
⮚ The temperament is not constant and immutable and can be modified to some
extent during the lifetime of a person.
⮚ Temperament includes the state of person , colour, functions of the systems,
mental and emotional tendencies etc. in relation to environment and
⮚ The temperament is represented by the sum total of physical, physiological,
biological, psychological and dynamic possibilities of the subject. this possibilities
are latent in him at birth.
⮚ These possibilities which characterize him are Peculiar to each individual and
constitutes his own inheritance thus making him different from his fellowmen.
Four classical types of temperament have been explained by H.A. Roberts.
1) Nervous temperament
2) Billious temperament
3) Sanguineous temperament
4) Phlegmatic temperament
1. NERVOUS TEMPERAMENT:
▪ The patient is mentally and physically alert nerves easily excite
▪ Takes quick decisions and act very rapidly.
▪ Impatient, always in hurry, hypochondriac in nature
▪ They are weak agitated and apprehensive.
▪ Example: Acteae Racemosa
2. BILLIOUS TEMPERAMENT
▪ Combination of earth cold and dry
▪ Tendency to liver disorders
▪ Patient is unstable, extroverted
▪ Active, optimistic,excitable, aggressive
▪ Ill humoured persons
▪ Generalized pigmentation
▪ High blood pressure
▪ Slow pulse
▪ Well developed muscles
▪ Strong appetite
▪ Related with hydrogenoid constitution
▪ Related with rheumatic diathesis
▪ Related with sycotic miasm
▪ Example: Aloe Socotrina
3. SANGUINEOUS TEMPERAMENT:
▪ Combination of Fire, hot and moist
▪ Name is derived from Latin word “sangus” means blood.
▪ Patient is optimistic, confident full of vigor.
▪ Patient is easygoing,talkative, outgoing, sociable, lively and carefree
▪ Blood related diseases and vascular abnormalities are seen.
▪ Patient is plethoric hopeful with fair complexion, light hair and eyes, a full pulse and
▪ Related with carbonitrogenoid constitution
▪ Related with scrofulous diathesis
▪ Related with psoric miasm
▪ Example: Aconitum napellus
4. PHLEGMATIC TEMPERAMENT:
▪ Combination of water wet and cold
▪ Phlegm or mucosal discharges are much present in this temperament
▪ Patient is introverted, reliable, peaceful, thoughtful and calm in nature
▪ Patient is sluggish, indifferent, calm and very lazy.
▪ Pallor of skin, slow shallow respiration with lymphatic glandular enlargement and
venous stasis are important findings in this type
▪ Example: Pulsatilla
⇨ Sometimes we find the combination of these types in single patient but one type will always dominate, in some instance it will even become difficult to grade a person under one heading as he seems to be a mixture of many temperaments
5) Melancholic temperament
6) Irritable temperament
7) Lymphatic temperament
5. MELANCHOLIC TEMPERAMENT:
▪ Combination of air, cool and dry.
▪ Name derived from greek words, “melen” means black and “chole”means bile
▪ Patient is quite,reserved, pessimistic always thinks about negative sides of things.
▪ Silent natured, emaciated, lean body with sad and depressed mentality
▪ Related with oxygenoid constitution
▪ Related with dyscratic diathesis
▪ Related with Syphilitic miasm
▪ Example: Aurum Metallicum
6. IRRITABLE TEMPERAMENT:
● Patient is irritable, easily vexed person
● Very difficult to please , becomes angry easily
● Example: Apis Mellifica
7. LYMPHATIC TEMPERAMENT:
● Sluggish, pale patients with lean,flabby muscles and slow Shallow respiration and inflammation of the skin and lymphatics
● Example: Baptisia Tinctoria
It is wise to give some consideration to the temperaments as they are important in taking case as well as prescribing.
It has been said that the temperaments are cast in the very beginning of the new individual.
1.When the parent cells first unite and that once cast, there is no deviation from them.
2.What is physiological cannot be influenced or changed by the action of our remedies.
▪ Both this statements are to a considerable degree true, but perhaps it would be
more definitely true that, if we said that the initial tendency cannot be changed, but
that the homeopathically indicated remedy, prescribed accurately in babies and
children, can also modify the physiological tendencies as to prevent their
unfavourable ultimate to some extent.
▪ Prescribing on the basis of constitutional type and temperaments only is not a
right method, Roberts calls it as prescription based on “half truth” example :partial
▪ Temperament can give a clue to the remedy but final prescription must always be
made on the basis of totality of symptoms.
1) Temperament helps in understanding the psychological basis of the disease.
2) Temperament helps in understanding the patient in relationship to his
environment and disease.
3) Temperamental study helps in selecting the similimum remedy.
4) Temperament helps in grouping of remedies in materia medica with similar
5) The physician thus foresees and consequently prevents undesirable manifestations.
6) Temperament enables the physician to understand psychological and disease
Temperament, keynotes helps in prescribing but one can not completely rely on them, totality of symptoms is the true indicator of remedy according to the law of similiars.
● The principles and art of cure by H.A Roberts
● Comprehensive study of organon of medicine by Dr. G. Nagendra Babu
● Spirit of organon by Dr. Tapan Chandra Mondal ( part 1)
GUIDED BY: Dr. B.P.PANDA Sir
Principal of PIHR