The kidneys are situated posteriorly in the abdomen , one on each side of the spinal column behind the peritoneum , and extend from the level of the eleventh rib to near the crest of the ilium . the right one is lower than the left .the function of the kidney is the secretion of urine . the urine must be tested for any diseases , its specific gravity , odor , color , reaction, albumin , picric acid , sugar , bile, urea, chlorides , sulphates , phosphates , alkaline etc ., for investigating normal /abnormal function
Hyperaemia – it may be the first stage of inflammation of kidney . the kidney is enlarged , of a dark red color and blood drips from a cut surface .
Treatment : aconite if the patient is restless , thirsty and there is anxiety and fever ,veratrum viride , cantharis –when there is constant desire to urinate . berberis vulgaris is indicated when it pains .
Chronic Nephritis : this presents it self either in the form of chronic parenchymatous nephritis which is a diffuse process . This is an inflammation affecting all tissues of the renal cortex but not tending to suppuration .primarily the kidney is enlarged as a result of inflammation .
Treatment : apocynum cannabinum– in which dropsy is pronounced . cantharis the urine is highly albuminous , micturition is frequent . mercurius corrosives – this remedy should be followed cantharis – the patient may be anemic .he may have gastro-intestinal disturbance . Arsenicum album-when the patient complains of extreme weakness and prostration , there is restlessness and anguish .
Chronic interstitial nephritis : This is a process of fibrosis usually associated with diffused arterio-slerosis and a parenchymatous degeneration that results in contraction of the size of the kidney .
Treatment : Aconitum— will be found of service in relieving the cerebral congestion and vertigo . Mercurius solubilus –if there is a history of syphilitic infection . the urine contains albumin and casts . arsenicum album—when there is respiratory difficulties ,dyspnoea which is worse after midnight .
Post scarlatina nephritis : a similar condition is met with following other infectious diseases . the danger of the excretory power of the kidney being injured .
Treatment : this is similar to the management of acute nephritis .Aconite , apismellifica ,cantharis should be tried .
Suppurative Nephritis : abscess of the kidney and acute nephritis .there is pain in the region of the kidney increased by pressure .the urine is diminished in quantity
Treatment : during the early stages aconite or veratrum viride , if the fever is high arnica if there is history of traumatism . Following the drainage , silicea , hepar sulphur , calcarea , echinetia should be compared .
Albuminuria : cases in which albumin has appeared in the urine during a life time without any pronounced or injurious effects , yet its presence is looked upon as a morbid manifestation .the albuminaria may be the result of primary disease of the kidney
Treatment : all food , drink and any condition that will in any way lead to an irritation of the kidney should be avoided .a milk diet is especially beneficial . vegetables and light pastry may be used . exercise should be taken in moderation .
Tuberculosis of the kidney : the direct cause is the tubercle bacillus .the predisposing cause is an inherent or an acquired weakness of the kidney .the urine sooner or later contains pus and blood and may be alkaline in reaction .
Treatment : tuberculin in infrequent doses is of great service in increasing the the resistance . calcarea carb, calcarea phos , and calcarea iod are useful .
Amyloid Kidney :;this is a degeneration of the kidney , the result of chronic wasting discharge or cachectic conditions of the body
Treatment : the early control of a suppurative process , or whatever factor is operative in the case is important . potassium or sodium , arsenicum , the iodides should be compared . If the kidneys have undergone an interestrial degeneration , aurum mur ,and the various forms of mercury should be compared .If tuberculosis is the causative factor tuberculin phospophorus , calc.carb.calc.phos.shouldbe tried
Nephrolithiasis : Renal calculus ; stone in kidney , this disease id more common in males than in females . the excessive use of meat and alcohol and disorders of metabolism , as gout , favor development of stones .
Treatment : surgical methods or homoeopathic medicines such as sarsaparilla , berberis vulgaris , benzoic acid and the benzoates lycopodium chelidonium and sepia may be tried .
Movable and floating Kidneys : Nephrotosis , floating Kidneys is applied to a congenital condition . it is more common in women than in men .the patient often complains high degree of nervousness .
Treatment : Ignatia, nux vom. , strychnia , arsenicum , chincona and pulsatilla
Hematuria : this is Renal epistaxis , the presence of blood in the urine in such a condition that the red blood corpuscles can be demonstrated . It occurs as a result of acute nephritis , embolism of the renal artery , carcinoma of the kidney , renal tuberculosis renal calculus and injury to the kidney .
Treatment : geranium maculatum , thalspi bursa pastoris , cantharis mellifolium , ipecac , crotalus and lachesis
Anuria : this is a condition in which there is no urine voided . it may result from a retention of urine with in the bladder . the use of the catheter will complete from partial retention of urine .
Treatment : aconite , terebinthina and cantharis , if there is remal congestion and inflammation . Apocynum if there is dropsy . Glonin if there is evidence of heart failure .
Hemoglobinuria : this is a condition in which the coloring matter of the blood appears in the urine , it is most commonly either of a chemic or bacterial origin .bloody appearance but no red blood corpuscles are found .
Treatment : the remedies that have been of most service are crotalus , phosphorous and ferrum phos .
Phosphaturia : in this there may be a condition in which the earthly and alkaline phosphates are constantly and abnormally eliminated .
Treatment : phosphoric acid is usually sufficient to control the disease .
Oxaluria : when there is abundance of the oxalate of lime crystals in the urine .
Treatment : oxalic acid , nitromuriatic acid , berberis vulgaris and senna .are those most frequently indicated .
Absence of the kidney : this condition may be congenital or acquired , one kidney may be absent , hence it should be known that the patient has both kidneys before removing one .
Malignant growths of the kidney : they may be sarcoma or carcinoma and may be either primary or secondary . men are frequently affected than women . complications , as rupture into the abdominal blood vessels , may cause death Treatment ; Early operation might be of some service .internal treatment may relieve some of the distressing symptoms , early nephrotomy may be considered , but is of little avail.
Pyelitis : surgical pyelo-nephritis .This is inflammation of the pelvis of the kidney . it may be catarrhal , hemorrhagic or purulent in character .
Treatment : in acute cases when the fever is high and the pain is severe aconite ,or veratrum viride . when the dry skin has given way to a moist hot skin with throbbing and dilated pupils –belladonna , if the patient becomes restless – rhus tox if blood in the urine –cantharis , if the case has advanced –berberis vulgaris if it has a large percentage of pus –benzioc acid .
Urocystitis : inflammation of the urinary bladder . This is frequently dependent upon bacteria , as the streptococcus , staphylococcus and bacterium coli , .the mucus membrane of the urinary bladder may show redness , swelling and an increased secretion of mucus .
Treatment : In acute cases one of the following remedies –Terebinthina : is use ful when the urine is scanty and bloody , cantharis –this is indicated when there is a constant desire to urinate , Aconite – when the fever is high , Belladonna , hyoscyamus .
Cystoplegia : paralysis of the bladder . paralysis may involve the sphincter or the detrusion muscle of the bladder .it require most powerful effort to expel the urine .
Treatment ; the remedies are –arsenicum , causticum , gelsemium , and nux vomica . where the urine is retained , aconite , cantharis , pareira brava and terebithina .
Cystospasms : spasm of the urinary bladder , this may be purely a nervous disturbance or it may result from an anatomic alteration , as disease of the bladder , spinal cord or brain .
Treatment : during the spasm the patient shold take a hot hip bath and be urged to pass urine . cannabis indica –when there is spasm of the bladder , cantharis –spasm of the bladder and the urethra , asafetida ,uva ursi , salix nigra .
Hyperesthesia of the bladder : this is observed in hysterical , hypochondrial and nervous patients who have been addicted to alcoholism , venereal excesses , mental over exertion , excessive indulgence in tobacco and masturbation .patients complain of severe vesical tenesmus when the bladder contains but a few drops of urine .
Treatment : stigmata maydis– is frequently of service , triticum repens, salix nigra , hyoscyamus and camphor .
Carcinoma of the urinary bladder : this is uncommon , it is more frequent in women than in men and is commonly secondary to a similar condition of the uterus , prostate gland or testicle .It may undergo degeneration and carcinomatous ulcers develop .. the true nature of the condition may be concealed for a long time , but the development of a chronic cystitis in an elderly person .
Treatment : treatment has not been successful , but early operation has done some thing in relieving pain and distress temporarily .
Nocturnal Enuresis : this is a disease of childhood . It may be the result of defective education , it is natural condition of infancy and is usually overcome by correct training , such as , walking the child at night .this consists of an unconscious evacuation of the urine in bed during profound sleep
Treatment : the diet and training of the child should be regulated . sulphur , belladonna ,equisetum , benzoic acid , ignatia , calcarea carb , causticum ,pulsatilla , gelsemium , verbascum , plantago , phosphoric acid , sepia , can be used depending upon the symptoms .
Uremia : this is a term applied to a group of symptoms which arises in cases of nephritis and hepatic insufficiency , when there is a defective elimination and auto-intoxication present . It may be acute or chronic .
Treatment ; cuprum ars. , carbolic acid ,veratrum viride , cantharis , arsenicum , caffeine , benzoic acid , Echinacea . these must be given depending upon the symptoms.
CASE HISTORY : A person by name Mr. MHK age-20 years brought with complaints to my clinic-
- puffiness of face especially in the morning .
- dyspnoea, on exertion , the complaint had started since 2 days ,there was a history of skin infection 15 days ago , he had also suffered from a past history of urinary tract infection .
General Symptoms ; Anaemia + oedema on face and lower extremities , Hypo-pigmented patch on the face , pulse –98/min. regular , normal tension and force . high volume , BP-170/90 of hg , weight –45 kg
He was advised hospitalization to confirm a diagnosis of nephritic syndrome
- blood count Hb –10 gms , % WBC-8500/cmm, ESR-52 .
- differential WBC –P 69 % , L-27 % , E-3 % ,M- 1 %, RBC –normocytic , mild hypochromia .
- serum creatinine –0.4 mgs %
- serum cholesterol – 216 mg %
- serum proteins –5.8 gms %
- blood urea –43 mgs %
- blood sugar –(random) – 99 mgs %
- urine routine proteins – +++pus cells –4-5, better , his oedema reduced and weight came down to 41 kgs
his blood pressure was still the same 170/90 mm of hg ,homoeopathic physician was called for an opinion and he gave the following .
general examination :
anaemia ++ , pulse- 90/min, BP- 210/100 mm of hg .
Medicines : A dose of syphyllinum 1M was given and apis mellifica 200 , four times daily . His blood pressure started coming down from 210/100 to 160/80 mm of hg .
He was given syphyllinum 10M one dose along with apis mellifica 200 his blood pressure came down to 134/60 mm of hg .
Precaution –the medicines shown in this article of above should not be taken without the proper consultation and diagnosis of the homoeopathic doctor .
Poly cystic kidney : It is frequently congenital , and may be associated with club-feet and hare-lip . It is usually multilocular . The cavity is filled with fluid or a colloid material which contains no urea . In some cases no renal tissue can be recognized .
Symptoms –the organ may attain such a size during fetal life as to interfere with delivery .If the child is born alive , the renal tumor is so large that death soon results
Treatment : this is surgical , the cysts may be punctured .
Absence of the Kidney : described in previous article
Treatment : it is surgical .
Aneurism of the renal artery :
This is rare and is seldom recognized during life . the patient dies suddenly , and a post –mortem examination shows a rupture of the renal artery .
There is a tumor with an expansible pulsation palpable in the line of renal artery . Renal colic as from renal calculus with hematuria are the symptoms usually complained of .
Treatment: is unsatisfactory
A case of renal failure ;
A case i6 year old girl , visited by me who had not passed urine since 3 days , while studying for examination preparation , she fainted and by evening she started getting double vision . A catheter was passed after which small amount of urine passed , sample of this was sent for pathological examination she was started on 5 % dextrose drip .
Symptoms : severe heaviness in the head , severe vertigo , delirium ,no appetite , no thirst , no stools , a state of stupor .
Physical examination : tenderness of lower abdomen , eyes – white with a wild look , tongue—slightly coated and dry , liver/spleen – not palpable
Investigation : chemical exam. NAD , microscopic pus cells –1-2 /hpf , epithilical cells –4-5 /hpf Blood urea—35 mg /100 ml.
Homoeopathic treatment :
1st day –she was given stramonium 30 , after 15 minutes of the dose , the rate of urine out flow was 40 drops per minute . The catheter was removed and then she had passed 300 ml of urine .
2nd day – the patient passed a normal amount of urine once , she slept well in night . the diplopia was better , she had not yet passed any stools , stramonium 30 was repeated
3rd day – she passed stools the urination was normal in amount and frequency . the thirst and appetite was still poor , another dose of stramonium 30 was given
4th day – there was heaviness in the head , no diplopia , some anxiety was present , urine scanty and dark . there was ineffectual and frequent urging to urinate with pain in the urethra , she could pass only a small amount of urine , hence Nux Vomica 30 was given
5th day –felt cheerful , urine stools , appetite and thirst were normal , again Nux Vomica 30 was given
6th day – she was perfectly well , no medicine was given
The reason ; for giving Stramonium ,-mind-dullness of all senses , head –intoxication and dizziness , eyes – diplopaia , abdomen-painful on touch , Urinary organs –suppression of secretion of urine.