Also called: Major depression
-A mental health disorder characterised by persistently depressed mood or loss of interest in activities, causing significant impairment in daily life.
-Possible causes include a combination of biological, psychological and social sources of distress. Increasingly, research suggests that these factors may cause changes in brain function, including altered activity of certain neural circuits in the brain.
It is very common more than 10 million cases per year (India).
Causes of Depression :
-Abuse of : Past physical, sexual, or emotional abuse can increase the vulnerability to clinical depression later in life.
-Death or a loss of nearest one
-Other personal problems
Requires for diagnosis :
-The persistent feeling of sadness or loss of interest that characterises major depression can lead to a range of behavioural and physical symptoms.
-These may include changes in sleep, appetite, energy level, concentration, daily behaviour or self-esteem.
-Depression can also be associated with thoughts of suicide.
Patients may feel : (symptoms )
-Behavioural: agitation, excessive crying, irritability, restlessness, or social isolation.
-Whole body: excessive hunger, fatigue, or loss of appetite.
-Mood: loss of interest or pleasure in activities, mood swings, or sadness, anxiety, apathy, general discontent, guilt, hopelessness.
-Sleep: early awakening, excess sleepiness, insomnia, or restless sleep.
-Weight: weight gain or weight loss.
-Cognitive: lack of concentration, slowness in activity, or thoughts of suicide.
-Also common: poor appetite & repeatedly going over thoughts.
1) Therapies :
a.Cognitive behavioral therapy : A talk therapy focused on modifying negative thoughts, behaviours and emotional responses associated with psychological distress.
b. Psychoanalysis and psychodynamic therapies. This approach focuses on changing problematic behaviors, feelings, and thoughts by discovering their unconscious meanings and motivations.
c. Behaviour therapy : A therapy focused on modifying harmful behaviours associated with psychological distress.
d. Humanistic therapy.
e. Integrative or holistic therapy.
2) Medication :
a. Antidepressant :Taking medications designed to help relieve symptoms of depression. Some antidepressants also have other uses, such as treating chronic pain and certain anxiety disorders.
b.Anxiolytic : Relieves anxiety and tension. May promote sleep.
c. SSRIs ( serotinin reuptake inhibitors) :Eases symptoms of depressed mood and anxiety.
3) Medical procedure : Electroconvulsive therapy :
Treating mental illness by sending electric currents through the brain to trigger a seizure. Also known as shock treatment.
-Get enough sleep
– eat well
– do exercise regularly
-Reach out to family and friends when times get hard
-Get regular medical checkups
-see your provider if you don’t feel right
-Get help if you think you’re depressed.