History , uses , side effects identification , and standardization of homoeopathic rauwolfia serpentine is described by T.L.C and U.V Spectrophotometry .
Rauwolfia serpentine benth , exkurz , family Apocynapeae known as serpa gandha in ,Sanskrit, chhota p chand in Hindi ,pagla – ka – dawa in Bihar , is a small shrub , with smmoth leaves pink or white blooms , and a long , tapering , snake like roots , found through out India , Burma , Pakistan , Thailand , Africa etc . In the 17th century , this plant was described by a French botanist and was named raulwollfia serpantina in honor of German botanist abd physician Dr. Leonhard Raulfia of Augusburg
This is a remarkable plant valued by Indian medical practioners fro time immemeroial it was not until 1944 that favourable reports were published as a modern drug sen and Bose clinical trial report on hypertension and afterwards it was widely appreciated in the western world In the Indian system of medicine rauwolfia favoured for all the ills of men , it was used epilepsy insanity , insomnia , dysentery , diarrhea cholera , head ache , blindness a wide variety of fevers and as an antidote for insect bites and snake bite (2).
rauwolfia was introduced in homoeopathy by DR. W .Templeton( 3) the description which has been proved by the faculty of homeopathic proving ,London is noted the case )4) , it has been very popularly used in sanity , hypertension , high blood pressure and certain neuropsychiatric , disorders etc
Rauwolfia serpentina is recognized as an official preparation in India and in other countries about 5 species occur in India A number of apocynaceae family R. canescens linn .R, ducurva Hook f,and R denisflora Benth exHookF, R. micrantha Hook F and R serpentine benth exkurz ,
Contain alkaloids in different quantities and reserpine as the chief constituent of them
R. serpentine contains at least 20 alkaloids (5) of which reserpine ajamaline , rauwlscine, alstonine yohimbine,, serpentine , serpentine raubasine , raupine , reserpinine ajmalcine , ranucscine , iso- raunescine , serpine are well known ( 6)
The effects of its different alkaloids individually very thus serpentine and ajmaline alkaloid are neither hypnotic nor sedative to the central nerves systems , but they lower blood pressure . Serpentinine alkaloid , raise , blood pressure and is a powerful central stimulant . primary action of reserpine . alkaloid is to deplete the tissue stores of their catecholamine serotonin content , especially in the brain , adrenal medulla , heart , and blood vessels . reserpine is absorbed from the intestine . it is taken up rapidly by lipid containing tissues through out the body and is cumulative in its action it is metabolized in the liver and its products are slowly excreted .
Reserpine is not now widely used because of the toxic effects which show lethargy , apathy , nasal stuffiness , diarrhea , dyspnoea , oedema , cardiac failure depression and even suicide , and parkinsonism . long term use may occasionally lead to breast carcinoma in women (7) . ajmaline aalkaloid is closely related chemically quinidine alkaloid ( cinchona bark) and it has almost same action . it has been used in the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias ( 8) EXPERIMENT AND RESULTS
Rauwolfia mother tincture was prepared in the labouratory according to the method described in H .P. I. (3) . standard solution of the principal alkaloid reserpine ( 10 mg/ml)
In ethanol was used for comparison . mother tincture rauwolfia (1;100) and resertine alkaloid 0.01 percent were diluted with ethanol .the U.V absorption curves of rauwolfia mother tincture and reserpine were drawn from 220 nm to 300n the absorption peaks of rauwolfia mother tincture and reserpine were maxima at 267 nm , 295 nm and minima at 245nm and 285 nm .