Forensic And Medical Toxicology - homeopathy360

Forensic And Medical Toxicology

Q.1. The most reliable method of estimating blood alcohol level (Bihar/AYUSH/Homoeo/MO/ QP/2014):
(a) Cavetti’s test
(b) Breath alcohol analyser
(c) Thin-layer chromatography
(d) Gas-liquid chromatography
Answer: (d)

Note: Out of above-given variables (d) Gas-liquid chromatography – is suggested.
Stem: Blood alcohol estimation

Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) describes the percentage of alcohol present in the blood. BAC testing enables law enforcement and medical professionals–as well as concerned individuals–to objectively estimate the level of a person’s alcohol intoxication. Put simply, the higher the BAC number, the greater the impairment.

Review of variables
(a) Cavetti’s test:
This method is used by chemical examiners as the basic test. Ref:
(b) Breath alcohol analyser: This is just a screening test Ref:
(c) Thin-layer chromatography: It’s mainly used for separation of mixtures of amino acids & peptides. Ref:
(d) Gas-liquid chromatography: Helps estimate alcohol which is sensitive, and reasonably specific. Ref:

Q.2. The most reliable diagnostic sign of drowning (Bihar/AYUSH/Homoeo/MO/QP/2014):
(a) Foreign bodies in air passages
(b) Water in stomach
(c) Cutis anserine
(d) Froth at nostrils
Answer: (d)

Note: Out of above-given variables (d) Froth at nostrils – is suggested.
Stem: ‘The most reliable diagnostic sign of drowning’

In cases of antemortem drowning fine, leathery froth present at mouth and nostril, it is regarded as a diagnostic sign of drowning. Ref: Pg-63, Concise Textbook of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology by Dr Sharma

Review of variables
Variable with Review Remark:
a. Foreign bodies in air passages:
– Sand or mud particles may be seen on the body, conjunctival sac, nostril and mouth. Ref: Pg-184, Forensic Medicine by P.V. Guharaj
b. Water in stomach: – Large quantities of water along with small weeds may be seen in the stomach and small intestine. This is a very important sign as it can only be produced in antemortem drowning. Ref: Pg-62, Concise Textbook of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology by Dr Sharma
c. Cutis anserine (Goose skin): – This phenomenon is not diagnostic of antemortem drowning. It may be seen in nervous shock, violent accidental deaths or may develop after death as a result of rigor mortis or erector pilorum muscles. Ref: Pg-62, Concise Textbook of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology by Dr Sharma
d. Froth at nostrils: – The froth is the result of churning of air, mucous and water, by the process of respiration and is diagnostic of drowning. The froth formation is facilitated by a lipoprotein, surfactant, normally present in the alveolar walls. It is impossible to obtain a persistent froth from any material other than a proteinaceous fluid. Ref: Pg-184, Forensic Medicine by P.V. Guhara

Q.3. In India, time limit for exhumation is (Bihar/AYUSH/Homoeo/MO/QP/2014):
(a) No time limit
(b) 5 Years
(c) 15 years
(d) 20 Years
Answer: (a)

Note: Out of the above given variables (a) No time limit-is suggested for exhumation.
Stem: ‘Time limit for exhumation in India’

In India, there is No time limit-for exhumation.
It is done:
(a) In criminal cases, such as homicide, suspected homicide disguised as suicide or other types of death, suspicious poisoning and death due to criminal abortion.
(b) In civil cases, such as accidental death claims insurance, workman’s compensation claim, disputed identity, etc. Ref:

Q.4. Dying declaration can be recorded by (NHMC/MD/Ent/2014):
(a) Magistrate only
(b) Doctor only
(c) Police in presence of accused
(d) Anyone
Answer: (d)

Note: Dying declaration can be recorded by (d) Anyone-is the most suitable choice among the above-given variables.
Stem: ‘Dying declaration’

According to Section 32 of Indian Evidence Act, ‘Dying declaration’ is the statement (written or verbal) made by a dying person as to the cause or circumstances bearing with the material facts of his impending unnatural death and then died. The declarant himself or the magistrate or the physician or anyone can record the statement. Ref: 259, 260 Forensic Medicine and Toxicology (Oral, Practical & MCQ) by R.N. Karmakar If the condition of the victim is serious, and there is no time to call a magistrate, the doctor should take the declaration in the presence of two witnesses. The statement can also be recorded by the village headmen, police, or any other person, but its evidential value will be less. Ref: Pg-8,19th Ed by Reddy.

Q.5. Coroner is only a court of (MPPSC/MO/09):
(a) Trial
(b) Inquiry
(c) Both trial and inquiry
(d) None of these
Answer: (b)

Note: Out of above-given variables (b) Inquiry – is suggested choice.
Stem: Coroner

A coroner is a government official who confirms and certifies the death of an individual within a jurisdiction. A coroner may also conduct or order an investigation into the manner or cause of death, and investigate or confirm the identity of an unknown person who has been found dead within the coroner’s jurisdiction. Ref:

Q.6. Suicidal strangulation is (MPPSC/MO/09):
(a) Rare
(b) Common
(c) Uncommon
(d) None of these
Answer: Use your discretion

Note: Out of the above given variables the choice suggested among above is (c) Uncommon
Stem: Suicidal strangulation

Suicidal strangulation is not common although instances have been known. To affect suicide by ligature requires the employment of some means (e.g., a tourniquet) whereby the ligature is kept tight independently of any muscular effort on the part of the suicide. In suicide, the ligature should be found in situ and the body should be free from other signs of violence or marks of struggle. The knot is usually in front. Hanging is usually suicidal and The strangulation is homicidal usually. Ref: Pg-3.51 Violent Asphyxial Deaths-Suicidal Strangulation-Parikh’s Textbook Jurisprudence
Suicidal strangulation is not very common, though sometimes met with. In these cases, some contrivance is always made to keep the ligature tight after insensibility supervenes. This is done by twisting a cord several times around the neck and then tying a knot, which is usually single and in front or at the side or back of the neck, by twisting the cord tightly by means of a stick, stone or some other solid material, or by tightening the ends of the cord by tying them to the hands or feet or to a peg in a wall or to the leg of a bed. In such cases, injuries to the deep structures of neck and marks of violence on other parts of the body are, as a rule absent. Ref: Pg-167, A Textbook of Medical Jurisprudence and Toxicology by Modi

Q.7. Where does rigor mortis starts from (MPPSC/MO/09):
(a) Kidney
(b) Heart
(c) Stomach
(d) Eye
Answer: (d)

Note: Out of above-given variables (d) Eye – is suggested choice.
Stem: Rigor mortis

Rigor mortis (Latin: rigor “stiffness”, mortis “of death”) is one of the recognizable signs of death, caused by chemical changes in the muscles after death, causing the limbs of the corpse to become stiff and difficult to move or manipulate. In humans, it commences after about three to four hours, reaches maximum stiffness after 12 hours, and gradually dissipates from approximately 24 hours after death.
Physical changes:
At the time of death, a condition called “primary flaccidity” occurs. Following this, the muscles stiffen in rigor mortis. All muscles in the body are affected. Starting between two to six hours following death, rigor mortis begins with the eyelids, neck, and jaw. The sequence may be due to different lactic acid levels among different muscles, which is directly related to the difference in glycogen levels and different types of muscle fibres. Ref:

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