Q.1. Primary importance to ‘Pathological Generals’ given by (Bihar/AYUSH/HMO/2014):
a) Dr Boger
b) Dr Boenninghausen
c) Dr J.T. Kent
d) Dr Gross
Note Out of above given variables (a) Dr Boger – is suggested
Stem: Primary importance to ‘Pathological generals’
Review of variables
(a) Dr Boger: The repertory published: Boger Boenninghausen’s Characteristics and Repertory (BBCR) Based on Philosophical background and concepts:
-Doctrine of complete symptoms
-Doctrine of concomitants
-Causation and time.
-Principle of generalization (if Sensation or Modalities are present in more than three parts). Best adaptable for cases:
-Rich in particulars with marked modalities and concomitants.
-Objective and pathological symptoms with the absence of characteristic symptoms
(b) Dr Boenninghausen:
The repertory published: Boenninghausen’s Therapeutic Pocket Book (BTPB) Based on Philosophical background and concepts:
-Doctrine of complete symptoms.
-Doctrine of analogy
-Doctrine of concomitants
-Principles of Grand generalization; symptom present in one part is considered to be a part of whole.
-Mental used to differentiation and final selection of remedy. Best adaptable for cases.
-When generals and marked mental are lacking
-Paucity of symptoms
-Prominent concomitants, marked sensations and modalities present.
(c) Dr J.T. Kent:
The repertory published: Kent’s repertory of Homeopathic materia medica Based on philosophical background and concepts:
-From generals to particulars.
-Highest emphasis on the Mental generals, followed by Physical generals and strange, rare and peculiar (Characteristic particulars).
-Symptoms have to be graded according to their value. Best adaptable for cases:
-Cases having generals and characteristic particulars.
-Useful in treating mental or emotional disorders.
(d) Dr Gross:
Dr Gross, one of Hahnemann’s associates, proved Baryta acetica, the symptoms of which are included in Hahnemann’s Materia Medica for Baryta carbonica (distinguished by an identifying mark) and which included the exact symptom of this patient.
Q.2. Boenninghausen generalized the symptoms by adopting (Bihar/AYUSH/HMO/2014):
a) The doctrine of analogy
b) The general symptoms
c) The conceptual image
d) The common symptoms
Note Out of above given variables (a) The doctrine of analogy – is suggested.
Stem: Boenninghausen’s concept of totality
Doctrine of generalization:
He continued with the Hahnemannian concept that it is the whole patient who is sick, that the parts together make the whole and the whole consists of parts. Therefore, every symptom or part of a symptom belongs to the case as a whole and enables us to complete partial symptoms by combining separated fragments as a whole.
The principle of generalization is helpful especially in those cases where the modality of a particular symptom is not available in the repertory.
Doctrine of analogy:
Boenninghausen had observed that “symptoms which existed in an incomplete state in some part of a given case could be reliable completed by analogy, by observing the condition of other parts of the case”.
Review of variables
(a) The doctrine of analogy:
-See as above-
(b) The general symptoms:
As the general symptoms affect the patient as a whole i.e., I feel cold, I am sleepy, I am angry etc. The general symptoms are divided into two groups:
These reflect the inner self and individuality of the patient. The changes involving will and emotion are given highest value e.g. love, hate, loathing, suicidal tendencies, lasciviousness, sexual perversion, fear, hurry, weeping disposition etc. Next in hierarchy symptoms of understanding e.g. delusion, delirium, hallucination and mental confusion. Lastly, the symptoms of intellect e.g. memory, concentration, mistake in writing, speaking etc.
Are the symptoms which deal with reaction to heat and cold, physical sensations of body as a whole.
(c) The conceptual image:
A conceptual image of the disease is erected by collecting data from the patient, patient’s relatives and from his own observations.
The physician perceives all the derangements at physical and mental levels of the patient, brings about conceptual image of the patient through totality of symptoms and selects the medicine, which is most similar to the picture of the patient. Thus the dictum goes “Homoeopathy treats the patient, and not the disease”.
(d) The common symptoms:
Common symptoms are common to any patient suffering from the certain disease or complaint. They are of least importance because they will be found in almost every drug disease in one form or other. For example; Blood in dysentery, Rash in measles, Headache in fever
Q.3. Which one of the following is not used for grading or evaluation of the medicines in Kent’s repertory (Bihar/AYUSH/HMO/2014)
b) Confirmation by reproving
c) Verification upon sick
Answer: Use your discretion
Review of variables
Recording has two components:
Recording; Part of proving the drug:
Symptoms recorded on proving, no grade is given
Confirmed on reproving were given ‘italics’ (2nd Grade)
Recording part of case taking:
It is the first and most crucial step in arriving on the “symptom complex” that express the totality of symptoms which leads to final application of the law of similar. According to Kent the following six elements are necessary to have a complete symptom:
Complete symptom consists of (Particular general):
1. Laterality or side.
6. Character or sensation
Nature of symptoms: these are graded according to their hierarchy as under:
Mental generals are given highest grade.
Followed by 1. Physical generals
2. Particular general: Common, PQR (Characteristic, Rare, Uncommon, Strange, Striking, Peculiar), These symptoms are also given highest grade on repertorial analysis.
b. Confirmation by reproving
2nd grade represented in italics, those symptoms produced by the majority of provers and frequently verified on reproving.
c. Verification upon the sick
1st grade represented in bold letters and is given to well proved, clinically (Verification upon sick) verified drugs.
d. Research has two components:
Research on humans: -It was part of ‘Drug proving’ and ‘Clinical verification’ – which was part of grading or evaluation of medicines as in Kent’s repertory.
Research on animals: -It was not conducted and never has been used for grading or evaluation of the medicines in Kent’s repertory.
The variable (a) ‘Recording’ and (d) ‘Research’ are ambiguous and not specific in their expression. Comparison with MCQ No76 – Kerela – PSC-2005 is as under
|MCQ Ref: Bihar AYUSH Homoeo/MO/QP/2014||MCQ Ref: Kerala PSC Tutor in Organon of Medicine 2005|
|a. Recording||a. Recording during proving|
|b. Confirmation by reproving||b. Confirmation by reproving|
|c. Verification upon sick||c. Verification upon sick|
|d. Research||d. Research on animals|
Considering the above variables, the most suitable answer is – (d) Research on animals
Dr Kent has given three grades to the drugs in his repertory.
Represented in Bold, those symptoms produced by majority of provers and frequently verified on reproving and clinically verified.
Represented in italics produced by few provers and occasionally verified reproving.
Produced only in small group of provers – Represented in roman.
The grading of the drugs will help in easy and fast selection of the indicated similia without compromising results.
Q.4. Repertory of hemorrhoids was written by (Bihar/AYUSH/MO/QP/2014):
Note Among above given variables (c) Guernsey-is suggested
The repertory of hemorrhoids was written by Guernsey in 1880.
Q5. Editor of Synthesis repertory (Bihar/AYUSH/MO/QP/2014):
a) Dr Fredrick Schroyens
b) Dr George Vithoulkas
c) Dr Garth Boericke
d) Dr Julian Winston
Note Out of the variables given above the (a) Dr Fredrick Schroyens-is suggested
Stem: Editor of Synthesis
Dr Fredrick Schroyens;
In 1993 he edited the printed version of the Synthesis Repertory, the expanded repertory linked to the Radar project. A computer version of Synthesis exists in seven languages. This repertory has also been printed in German, English, Dutch, Italian, Spanish and Portuguese.
Review of variables
(a) Dr Fredrick Schroyens:
Dr Frederik Schroyens was born on January 12, 1953, in Mechelen, Belgium. Schroyens is a 1977 medical graduate of the State University of Gent (Belgium) and a 1978 graduate of the one-year Homeopathic Training Course at the Faculty for Homeopathy in London (MFHom). In 1981, Dr Schroyens was the constitutive President of VSU, the largest Homeopathic School in Belgium. VSU has given a one-year introductory training on homoeopathy to more than 1,000 students and fully trained over 150 homoeopaths.
Dr Schroyens was one of the first RADAR users in 1986 and became enthusiastic about the increasing possibilities computer science offers to Homeopathy. Because of his dedication to the program, he became the Homeopathic Coordinator of the RADAR Project. Ref: http://www.wholehealthnow.com/bios/frederik-schroyens.html
(b) Dr George Vithoulkas:
George Vithoulkas (born 25 July 1932 in Athens)1] is a Greek teacher and practitioner of homoeopathy. He studied homoeopathy in South Africa and received a diploma in homoeopathy from the Indian Institute of Homeopathy in 1966. Upon receiving his diploma, he returned to Greece where he practised and began teaching classical homoeopathy to medical doctors at what eventually became the Center of Homeopathic Medicine in Athens.
In 1972, Vithoulkas started a Greek homoeopathic journal, Homeopathic Medicine. In 1976, he organized the first of an annual series of International Homeopathic Seminars. In 1995, he opened the International Academy for Classical Homeopathy on Alonissos, which provides post-graduate training for homoeopaths.
(c) Dr Garth Wilkinson. Boericke, M.D.
He was son of Dr William Boericke. He followed his father’s footsteps and became a homoeopath. He introduced Heckla lava into the Boericke’s Materia Medica.
(d) Dr Julian Winston
Homoeo Times this month introduces the world’s renowned physician Julian Winston, practices at Tawa, New Zealand. Julian Winston was born in New York City. He was elected to the board of directors of the National Center for Homeopathy in 1982. He has been the editor of the NCH newsletter, Homeopathy Today and authored a famous book “Faces of Homoeopathy“. He is also a member of the Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia Convention of the United States (HPCUS).
Julian’s homoeopathic library and collection is one of the largest private collections in the United States and is now the largest in the Southern Hemisphere. He has original letters from Kent and Hering, original (handwritten) manuscripts of books, a repertory that belonged to J.H. Clarke, books bearing the signatures of Nash, Hering, Lippe, Fincke, and others, and a collection of homoeopathic ephemera – postcards, photographs, bottles, etc. Julian currently co-directs with his wife, Gwyneth Evans, the Wellington College of Homeopathy. Check out his website at www.julianwinston.com
Q6. A full-time amelioration of the symptoms yet no special relief to the patients is Kent’s which observation (Bihar/AYUSH/HMO/2014):
a) Fifth observation
b) Sixth observation
c) Seventh observations
d) Tenth observation
Note Out of the above given variables (c) 7th observation of Kent’s twelve observations –is suggested
Review of variables
(a) Fifth observation:
5th observation: “the amelioration comes first, and then comes the aggravation”.
Inference: The medicine was antipathic in nature, or it was only partially or superficially similar.
(b) Sixth observation:
6th observation: “too short relief of the symptoms”. Inference:
-In acute disease, the medicine needs frequent repetition.
-In chronic disease, the medicine was partially similar. Structural changes have taken place.
(c) Seventh observation:
7th observation: “a full time amelioration of the symptoms, yet no special relief of the patient.”
-Existing state (Tissue changes) prevent improvement beyond the certain limit.
(d) Tenth observation:
10th observation: “new symptoms appear after the remedy”. Inference:
-The medicine was wrong.
Q.7. Which of the following remedies have a desire to kill a person who contradicts? (NHMC/MD/ Ent/2014):
a) Nux vom
b) Hepar sulph
c) Merc sol
d) Nitric acid
Note Among the variables given above (c) Merc sol –is suggested
Refer: DU Answer Key Suggests –(a)
Kent Repertory: Mind-(Pg-60):
++ KILL, desire to: Agar., anac., ars-i., ars., bell., calc., camph., chin., cupr., cur., hep., Hyos., iod., lach., lyss., merc., nux-v., op., petr., phos., plat., sec., stram., thea.
++ barber wants to kill his customer: Ars., hep.
++ desire to kill the person that contradicts her: Merc.
++ rest, during: Iod.
++ sight of a knife: Plat.
++ of knife or a gun: Alum.
++ something urges her to, her husband, of whom she is very fond: Merc., nux-v., plat.
++ sudden impulse to: Ars-i., ars., hep., iod., kali-ar., nux-v., plat., thea.
++ impulse to, herself: Nat-s., thu.
++ for a slight offense: Hep., merc., nux-v.
++ throw child into fire: Lyss., nux-v., thea.
Ref: Kent Repertory.
Q.8. Repertory on Causation is written by: (NHMC/MD/Ent/2014):
d) Dr Bhardwaj
Note Out of the variables given above, choice suggested is (d) Dr Bhardwaj
Repertory of causation is written by Dr Bhardwaj.
Ref: Pg-35-A Textbook of Homoeopathic Repertory by Prof. Dr. Niranjan Mohanty.
Q.9. The 2nd part Fragmenta de Viribus contains repertory. The first part of it contains: (NHMC/MD/ Ent/2014):
a) Organon of Medicine
d) Materia Medica
Note The most suitable choice among the above given variables is (d) Materia Medica.
‘Fragmenta de viribus medica mentorum positivis, sive in sano corpore humano observatis’, the meaning of the title of the book is ‘Fragmentary observation relative to positive power of medicine on human body’. The book is divided into two main parts:
First part (Pars Prima)-Materia Medica has 8 pages of introduction and 269 pages TEXTUS or main text.
Part 2 (Pars Secunda)-Repertory or Index-with 6 pages of preface and repertory of 470 pages (Word- index).
Ref: http://www.ijrh.org/article.asp?issn=0974-7168;year=2014;volume=8;issue=3;spage=177;epage=17 9;aulast=Chakma
Q.10. Contribution to knowledge of peculiarities of Homeopathic remedies by Boenninghausen was published in the year: (NHMC/MD/Ent/2014):
Note The choice among the above given variables is (c) 1833 –for contributions to knowledge of the peculiarities of homoeopathic remedies published in the year 1833.
1. The Cure of Cholera and its Preventatives (according to Hahnemann’s latest communication to the author). 1831.
2. Repertory of the Antipsoric Medicines, with a preface by Hahnemann. 1832.
3. Summary View of the Chief Sphere of Operation of the Antipsoric Remedies and of their Characteristic Peculiarities, as an Appendix to their Repertory. 1833.
4. An Attempt at a Homoeopathic Therapy of Intermittent Fever. 1833.
5. Contributions to Knowledge of the Peculiarities of Homoeopathic Remedies. 1833.
6. Homoeopathic Diet and a Complete Image of a Disease. (For the non-professional public.) 1833.
7. Homoeopathy, a Manual for the Non-Medical Public. 1834.
8. Repertory of the Medicines which are not Antipsoric. 1835.
9. Attempt at Showing the Relative Kinship of Homoeopathic Medicines. 1836.
10. Therapeutic Manual for Homoeopathic Physicians, for use at the sick bed and in the study of the Materia Medica Pura. 1846.
11. Brief Instructions for Non-Physicians as to the Prevention and Cure of Cholera. 1849.
12. The Two Sides of the Human Body and Relationships. Homoeopathic Studies. 1853.
13. The Hom. Domestic Physician in Brief Therapeutic Diagnoses. An Attempt. 1853.
14. The Homoeopathic Treatment of Whooping Cough in its Various Forms. 1860.
15. The Aphorisms of Hippocrates, with Notes by a Homoeopath. 1863.
16. Attempt at a Homoeopathic Therapy of Intermittent and Other Fevers, especially for would be homoeopaths. Second augmented and revised edition. Part 1. The Pyrexy. 1864.
Ref: Pg-155, 156, Essentials of Repertorisation by S.K. Tiwari
Q.11. In B.T.P.B. repertory ‘Quivering’ rubric is found under chapter: (NHMC/MD/Ent/2014):
c) Both (a) and (b)
Answer: Use your discretion
Note Out of the above given variables (c) Both (a) and (b) is suggested DU Answer key suggests: (a) Gland
In BTPB-Part-III. Sensations and Complaints include:
Sensations and Complaints — In general
Sensations and Complaints — Glands
Sensations and Complaints — Bones
Sensations and Complaints — Skin
The Sensation is the chapter under which gland is given-Hence the choice (c) Both (a) and (b) is suggested choice.
Q.12. In which Repertory, specific hour is not mentioned under section time: (NHMC/MD/Ent/2014):
a) Gentry’s concordance
Note The most suitable choice among the variables given above is (b) B.B.C.R.
Here the medicines are grouped under broad division of Time i.e., day time, morning, forenoon, noon, etc. there is no specific hours mentioned as is in Kent’s repertory.
Ref: Pg-187, Sure Shot Repertory Guide for PG Students.