PHARMACY - homeopathy360


Q.1. A medicine may be called Homoeopathic if it is (Bihar/AYUSH/MO/QP):
a) Included in Homoeopathic Materia Medica.
b) Used in Potentised doses.
c) Prepared according to homoeopathic pharmacopoeia.
d) Based on the principle of similia
Answer: (c)

Note Out of above given variables (c) Prepared according to homoeopathic pharmacopoeia – is suggested for-may be called homoeopathic medicine
Stem: ‘A medicine may be called homoeopathic’

Homoeopathic medicinal product definition:
Any medicinal product prepared from (products, substances or compositions) substances called homoeopathic stocks in accordance with a homoeopathic manufacturing procedure described by the European Pharmacopoeia or, in the absence thereof, by the pharmacopoeias currently used officially in the Member States. A homoeopathic medicinal product may contain a number of principles.
A medicine may be called Homoeopathic if prepared according to homoeopathic pharmacopoeia, as it is the first and foremost condition to be fulfilled for homoeopathic medicine.

Review of variables
(a) Included in Homoeopathic Materia Medica:
Homoeopathic drugs are included after proving and clinical verification of homoeopathic medicines.
(b) Used in potentised doses:
Homoeopathic drugs are used in potentised doses.
(c) Prepared according to homoeopathic pharmacopoeia.
First and foremost condition applied for homoeopathic drug.
(d)  Based on the principle of similia:
Homoeopathic medicines are applied on the law of ‘similia’.

Q.2.  One grain powder is equal to (Bihar/AYUSH/HMO/2014):
a) 65 mg
b) 80 mg
c) 90 mg
d) 100 mg
Answer: (a)

Note Out of the above given variables (a) 65 mg. – is suggested – for – equal to One grain.

One grain is equal to 65 mg.
Ref: Pg-245 – Text Book of Homoeopathic Pharmacy by B. Mandal

Extended information
A grain is a unit of measurement of mass equal to 64.79891 milligrams. It is nominally based upon the mass of a single seed of a cereal. From the Bronze Age into the Renaissance, the average masses of wheat and barley grains were part of the legal definition of units of mass. Ref:

Q.3. A Mother Tincture is (Bihar/AYUSH/HMO/2014):
a) An alcoholic solution
b) Alcoholic extract
c) Dilution of the drug
d) Aquo-alcoholic extract
Answer: Use your discretion

Note The variable given above (d) Aquo-alcoholic extract –is suggested – for Mother Tincture
Stem: ‘A Mother Tincture’

Recall Definition:
Mother tincture is a drug, pharmaceutically prepared from drug substance of vegetable and animal kingdom, using strong alcohol as a vehicle (solvent) by the process of immersion, maceration and percolation. Ref: Pg-156-A Textbook of Homoeopathic Pharmacy by Mandal and Mandal
According to W.A. Dewey, “The strongest liquid preparation of drugs used in homoeopathy, and made by macerating or dissolving the drug or portions of it in alcohol or water. It is denoted by Q. Mother tincture is used to prepare the potency of the respective drug. Ref: Pg-248, Textbook of Homoeopathic Pharmacy by D.D. Banerjee
The first stage in the preparation of a homoeopathic remedy, made by soaking a plant, animal, or mineral product in a solution of alcohol.
Ref: Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
A concentrate of a raw material used in homoeopathy, which is prepared by placing it in alcohol and distilled water for one month, followed by pressing and filtering.
Ref: Segen’s Medical Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All rights reserved.
Tincture means a medicine consisting of an extract in an alcohol solution. A mother tincture is the extract of the original drug substance; the extract is made with alcohol or water in a certain proportion. All the medicines that are soluble in alcohol or water are first prepared in mother tincture form and from mother tincture, further potencies are prepared.

Review of variables
(a) An alcoholic solution:
Most medicines used in homoeopathic practice can be prepared in the form of tinctures (as well as in the form of attenuations). Tinctures also referred to as “mother tinctures” are made from a variety of zoological or botanical substances which are wholly or partially soluble in alcohol of various strengths. Such substances comprise of all plants and parts of plants, such as bark, root, wood, fruit, bud, flower, seed, resin, gum and balsam. Ref: Pg-299, Textbook of Homoeopathic Pharmacy by D.D. Banerjee
However, Alcoholic solution (Class VI): it includes those chemical drugs which are soluble in alcohol. Hahnemann classified them as VI (A) and VI (B) depending upon their solubility in the strength of 10% respectively.
Ref: Pg-165, Textbook of Homoeopathic Pharmacy by Mandal and Mandal
(b) Alcoholic extract:
Disease products of other animals:
Anthracinum: the alcoholic extract of the anthrax poison, prepared from the spleen of sheep or cattle, ill with the disease.
Aviaire: From tuberculous bacteria of chicken
Ref: Pg-26, Textbook of Homoeopathic Pharmacy by Mandal and Mandal
(c) Dilution of the drug:
METHOD 4a: Mother Tinctures and Liquid Dilutions
Method 4a is for mother tinctures manufactured according to the maceration or percolation methods described in the Tinkturen (tinctures) monograph in the German Pharmacopoeia using 1 part of the drug to 10 parts of ethanol in suitable concentration (unless otherwise stated in the monograph). If adjustment to a given value is necessary, the required amount of ethanol in the concentration prescribed or used for manufacture is calculated according to formula (1). The calculated amount   of ethanol is combined with the filtrate. The mixture is left to stand for not less than five days at a temperature not exceeding 20° C, after which it is filtered if required.

The mother tincture is equivalent to the 1st decimal dilution (0 = 1x)
The 2nd decimal dilution (2x) is made with 1 part of the mother tincture and 9 parts of ethanol of the same concentration.
Ref: Pg-287, Textbook of Homoeopathic Pharmacy by D.D. Banerjee
(d) Aquo alcoholic extract:
No reference could be found in both the Textbook of pharmacy. Ref: Textbook of Homoeopathic Pharmacy by Mandal and Mandal Ref: Textbook of Homoeopathic Pharmacy by D.D. Banerjee

Q4. Cinnabaris is a (Bihar/AYUSH/HMO/2014):
a) Zinc compound
b) Lead compound
c) Copper compound
d) Mercuric compound
Answer: (d)

Note Out of the variables given above (d) Mercuric compound –is suggested-for Cinnabaris.
Stem: ‘Cinnabaris is a compound of’

Cinnabaris. (cinnb). RED SULPHIDE OF MERCURY.
Ref: Mat Med, Kent.
Cinnabaris. Mercuric Sulphide (MERCURIUS SULPHURATUS RUBER)
Ref: Mat Med, Boericke

Review of variables
(a) Zinc compound:
Zincum aceticum, Zinc bromatum, Zinc oxydatum, Zinc. sulph, Zinc cyanatum, Zinc ars, Zinc carb, Zinc phos, Zinc muriaticum, Zinc phos, Zinc picricum. Ref: Mat Med Boericke
(b) Lead compound:
Plumb acet, Plumb iodatum, Plumb chromicum, Plumb phosph. Ref: Mat Med Boericke
(c) Copper compound:
Cupr sulphum, Cupr cyan. Ref: Mat Med Boericke
(d) Mercuric compound:
Mercur acet, Mercurius auratus, Mercurius bromatus, Mercurius nitrosus, Mercurius phosphoricus, Mercurius precipitatus ruber, Mercurius tannicus, Mercurius cum kali. Ref: Mat Med Boericke

Q.5. Succussion is the process used for potentizing (Bihar/AYUSH/HMO/2014):
a) Solid drugs
b) Insoluble drugs
c) Soluble drugs
d) None of the above
Answer: (c)

Note Out of above given variables the-(c) Soluble drugs – is suggested for-succession is the process used for potentization.
Stem: Succussion

Succussion is a process of potentization, by which preparation of medicine takes place by the use of a liquid vehicle like alcohol or water, by shaking in definite method according to Pharmacopoeia.

Review of variables
(a) Solid drugs:
The method adopted for preparation depends on sources, solubility and moisture content of the drug substance. Two predominant preparatory methods are suggested and these are as under:
*Class IV: Dried vegetables and animal substances (Vegetable source; Arnica montana, Hydrocotyle asiatica, Jalapa and from animal source; Apis mellifica, Cantharis, Spongia tosta) are included. Mother tincture is prepared in alcohol and potencies are raised by way of succession. Ref: Pg-163, 2nd Ed, A Textbook of Homoeopathic Pharmacy by Mandal and Mandal
*Class VII: Dry, insoluble medicinal substances are used here and the method adopted is by way of trituration. (Solid drugs need trituration till 3rd centesimal or 6th decimal after which they attain physical solubility).
Ref: Pg-169, 2nd Ed – Textbook of Homoeopathic Pharmacy by B. Mandal and Mandal
(b) Insoluble drugs:
For insoluble drugs (Vegetable source-China, Nux vom, Coffea crud and Animal source – Sepia, Tarentula hispanica) there preparation is in accordance to Class VII, by way of Trituration.
Drugs or substance which are insoluble in liquid vehicle i.e., purified alcohol and water are potentized by the process / method of trituration.
Ref: Pg-169, 2nd Ed, A Textbook of Homoeopathic Pharmacy by Mandal and Mandal
(c) Soluble drugs:
These are potentized by way of succussion.
Ref: Pg-163, 2nd Ed, A Textbook of Homoeopathic Pharmacy by Mandal and Mandal
(d) None of the above:
-Not Applicable-

Q.6. From which layer of oyster shell, Calcarea Carb is prepared (Bihar AYUSH Homoeo/MO/ QP/2014):
a) Inner layer
b) Middle layer
c) Outer Layer
d) All of the above
Answer: (b)

Note Out of above given variables the (b) Middle layer –is suggested for layer of oyster shell –Calc carb is prepared from.
Ref: Pg-186, 187-A Textbook of Homoeopathic Pharmacy by Mandal and Mandal

Review of Variables:
(a) Inner layer:
-Not Applicable-
(b) Middle layer:
Break in pieces a clean, somewhat thick oyster shell, take one grain of the softer, snow-white calcaneous substance found between the outer and the inner harder shell. This is prepared in all the degrees of potencies up to X in the manner directed as to the preparation of dry medicinal substances for homoeopathic use, given at the conclusion of Part I. This is preserved from sunlight and great warmth, to be used for its various purposes.
Ref: Ch. Disease Under-Calcarea Carbonica
Hahnemann further clarifies:
I would again repeat, that I have endeavored to secure the medicinal material for homoeopathic use, wherever practicable, in the most simple and natural manner, and to give directions of this kind; so that every physician, wherever they may be, may secure the same substance. For this purpose, which was to be most important (and not merely to avoid every appearance of ostentation and puristic pedantry, which would in this matter have been altogether out of place). I had to avoid as far as possible all directions which would have led to difficult chemical operations, by means of costly apparatus, to secure the absolute chemical purity of the medicinal substances used.
Ref: Ch. Disease under Kali Carbonicum
(c) Outer layer:
-Not Applicable-
(d) All of the above:
-Not Applicable-

Q.7. Imponderable drugs are introduced by Hahnemann in Organon of Medicine in aphorism (Bihar/ AYUSH/HMO/2014):
a) Aph.-274
b) Aph.-267
c) Aph.-282
d) Aph.-286
Answer: Use your discretion

Hahnemann refers in Organon Aphorism: 280-Footnote that. ‘….even imponderable agencies can produce most violent effects upon man…’

Review of variables
(a) Aph. 274:
As the true physician finds in simple medicines, administered singly and uncombined, all that he can possibly desire (artificial disease-force which are able by homoeopathic power completely to overpower, extinguish, and permanently cure natural diseases), he will, mindful of the wise maxim that it is wrong to attempt to employ complex means when simple means suffice, never think of giving as a remedy any but a single, simple medicinal substance; for these reasons also, because even though the simple medicines were thoroughly proved with respect to their pure peculiar effects on the unimpaired healthy state of man, it is yet impossible to foresee how two and more medicinal substances might, when compounded, hinder and alter each other’s actions on the human body; and because, on the other hand, a simple medicinal substance when used in diseases, the totality of whose symptoms is accurately known, renders efficient aid by itself alone, if it be homoeopathically selected; and supposing the worst case to happen, that it was not chosen in strict conformity to similarity of symptoms, and therefore does no good, it is yet so far useful that it promoted our knowledge of therapeutic agents, because, by the new symptoms excited by it in such a case, those symptoms which this medicinal substance had already shown in experiments on the healthy human body are confirmed, an advantage that is lost by the employment of all compound remedies.1
1When the rational physician has chosen the perfectly homoeopathic medicine for the well-considered case of disease and administered it internally, he will leave to irrational allopathic routine the practice of giving drinks or fomentations of different plants, of injecting medicated glysters and of rubbing in this or the other ointment.
Ref: Organon of medicine
(b) Aph. 267:
We  gain possession of the powers of indigenous plants and of such as may be had in a fresh state   in the most complete and certain manner by mixing their freshly expressed juice immediately with equal parts of spirits of wine of a strength sufficient to burn in a lamp. After this has stood a day  and a night in a close stoppered bottle and deposited the fibrinous and albuminous matters, the clear superincumbent fluid is then to be decanted off for medicinal use.1 All fermentation of the vegetable juice will be at once checked by the spirits of wine mixed with it and rendered impossible for the future, and the entire medicinal power of the vegetable juice is thus retained (perfect and uninjured) forever by keeping the preparation in well-corked bottles and excluded from the sun’s light.2 1Buchholz (Taschenb. f. Scheidek. u. Apoth. a. d. J., 1815, Weimar, Abth. I, vi) assures his readers (and his reviewer in the Leipziger Literaturzeitung, 1816, No. 82, does not contradict him) that for this excellent mode of operating medicines we have to thank the campaign in Russia, whence it was (in 1812) imported into Germany. According to the noble practice of many Germans to be unjust towards their own countrymen, he conceals the fact that this discovery and those directions, which he quotes in my very words from the first edition of the Organon of Rational Medicine, Aph. 230 and note, proceed from me, and that I first published them to the world two years before the Russian campaign (the Organon appeared in 1810). Some folks would rather assign the origin of a discovery to the deserts of Asia than to a German to whom the honor belongs. O tempora! O mores!
Alcohol has certainly been sometimes before this used for mixing with vegetable juices, e.g., to preserve them some time before making extracts of them, but never with the view of administering them in this form.
2Although equal parts of alcohol and freshly expressed juice are usually the most suitable proportion for affecting the deposition of the fibrinous and albuminous matters, yet for plants that contain much thick mucus (e.g. Symphytum officinale, Viola tricolor, etc.), or an excess of albumen (e.g., Aethusa cynapium, Solanum nigrum, etc.), a double proportion of alcohol is generally required for this object. Plants that are very deficient in juice, as Oleander, Buxus, Taxus, Ledum, Sabina, etc., must first be pounded up alone into a moist, fine mass and the stirred up with a double quantity of alcohol, in order that the juice may combine with it, and being thus extracted by the alcohol, maybe pressed out; these latter may also when dried be brought with milk-sugar to the millionfold trituration, and then be further diluted and potentized (v. Aph. 271)
Ref: Organon of medicine
(c) Aph. 282:
The smallest possible dose of homoeopathic medicine capable of producing only the very slightest homoeopathic aggravation, will, because it has the power of exciting symptoms bearing the greatest possible resemblance to the original disease (but yet stronger even in the minute dose), attack principally and almost solely the parts in the organism that are already affected, highly irritated, and rendered excessively susceptible to such a similar stimulus, and will alter the vital force that rules  in them to a state of very similar artificial disease, somewhat greater in degree than the natural one was; this artificial disease will substitute itself for the natural (the original) disease, so that the living organism now suffers from the artificial medicinal disease alone, which, from its nature and owing to the minuteness of the dose, will soon be extinguished by the vital force that is striving to return to the normal state, and (if the disease were only an acute one) the body is left perfectly free from disease- that is to say, quite well.
Ref: Organon of medicine
(d) Aph. 286:
For the same reason the effect of a homoeopathic dose of medicine increases, the greater the quantity of fluid in which it is dissolved when administered to the patient, although the actual amount of medicine it contains remains the same. For in this case, when the medicine is taken, it comes in contact with a much larger surface of sensitive nerves responsive to the medicinal action. Although theorists may imagine there should be a weakening of the action of dose of medicine by its dilution with a large quantity of liquid, experience asserts exactly the opposite, at all events when the medicines are employed homoeopathically.1
1It is only the most simple of stimulants, wine and alcohol, that have their heating and intoxicating action diminished by dilution with much water.
Ref: Organon of medicine

Extended information
Hahnemann refers in Organon. Aphorism 280 footnote
Aph. 280 (Fifth Edition):
This incontrovertible axiom of experience is the standard of measurement by which the doses of all homoeopathic medicines, without exception, are to be reduced to such an extent that after their ingestion, they shall excite a scarcely observable homoeopathic aggravation, let the diminution of the dose go ever so far, and appear ever so incredible to the materialistic ideas of ordinary physicians;1 their idle declamations must before the verdict of unerring experience.
Foot Note
1 Let them learn from the mathematicians how true it is that a substance divided into ever so many parts must still contain in its smallest conceivable parts always some of this substance and that the smallest conceivable part does not cease to be some of this substance and cannot possibly become nothing;-let them, if they are capable of being taught, hear from natural philosophers that there are enormously, powerful things (forces) which are perfectly destitute of weight, as, for example, caloric, light, etc., consequently infinitely lighter than the medicine contained in the smallest doses used in homoeopathy;-let them, if they can, weigh the irritating words that bring on a bilious fever, or the mournful intelligence respecting her only son that kills the mother; let them touch, for a quarter of an hour, a magnet capable of lifting a hundred pounds weight, and learn from the pain it excites that even imponderable agencies can produce the most violent medicinal effects upon man;-and let the weak ones among them allow the pit of the stomach to be slightly touched by the thumb’s point of a strong-willed mesmeriser for a few minutes, and the disagreeable sensations they then suffer will make them repent of attempting to set limits to the boundless activity of nature; the weak-minded creatures!
Ref: Organon of medicine
Hahnemann refers in Organon. Aphorism 280 footnote that. ‘….even imponderable agencies can produce most violent effects upon man…’
The word imponderable is derived from imponderable, meaning having no weight, very light, something that cannot be measured quantitatively.
In medicine this word issued to describe the medicines that are derived from sources of energy, whether natural (Magnetis, Luna, Sol, Electticitas) or artificial – X-ray, Electicity, Magnetis artificialis, etc.)
H.C. Allen Describes their mode of preparation and symptoms in his, ‘Materia Medica of Nosodes.’
Ref: Pg-28, 2nd Ed, Text Book of Homoeopathic Pharmacy By Mandal and Mandal

Q.8. Medicine prepared from spider poison? (Bihar/AYUSH/MO/QP/2014):
a) Cantharis
b) Tarentula
c) Bufo
d) Murex
Answer: (b)

Note Among above given variables (b) Tarentula – is suggested –for-the medicine prepared from spider poison.
Stem: Spider poison

Following is the list of spider poison remedies:

  1. Aranea-diadema (Spider papal cross)
  2. Aranea-scinencia (Gray spider)
  3. Latrodectus-mactans (American black widow)
  4. Latrodectus-hasselti (New South Wales black spider)
  5. Latrodectus-katipo (New Zealand and spider)
  6. Mygale-lasidora (Black cuban spider)
  7. Tarentula-hispanica (Spanish spider)
  8. Tarentula-cubensis (Cuban spider)
  9. Theridion-curassavicum (West Indian orange spider)
  10. Tela-aranearum (Spiders web).

Ref: Spider Poisons-An Untapped Goldmine in Homoeopathy, Dr Kamlesh Nath. National Journal of Homoeopathy 1993 Jul / Aug Vol II No 4.

Review of variables
(a) Cantharis:

Cantharis is also known as Cantharis vesicatoria or Spanish fly
Ref: Homoeopathic Materia Medica by William Boericke
Or / Also at:Ref: Pg-17, 2nd Ed, A Textbook of Homoeopathic Pharmacy by Mandal and Mandal
(b) Tarentula:
Tarentula is also known as Tarentula hispanica or Spanish spider
Ref: Homoeopathic Materia Medica by William Boericke
Or / Also at: Tarentula is given under:
Tarentula cubensis – is known as – Cuban spider, Hairy spider (Common name) Tarentula hispanica-is known as – Spanish spider (Common name)
Ref: Pg-17, 2nd Ed, A Text Book of Homoeopathic Pharmacy by Mandal and Mandal
(c) Bufo:
Bufo is also known as Bufo rana or Poison of the toad
Ref: Homoeopathic Materia Medica by William Boericke
Or / Also at:
Bufo – is also known as Toad
Ref: Pg-20, 2nd Ed, A Text Book of Homoeopathic Pharmacy by Mandal and Mandal
(d) Murex:
Murex purpurea is also known as Purple fish.
Ref: Homoeopathic Materia Medica by William Boericke
Or / Also at
Ref: Pg-18, 2nd Ed, A Text Book of Homoeopathic Pharmacy by Mandal and Mandal

Extended information
Tarentula Hispanica is a large venomous South European Wolf Spider, which is found in Italy and Spain. The proving of this drug was carried out by Nunez in 1846 on ten doctors and eight laymen. The main action of this drug is on Nervous system, Heart, Spine, Respiration, Generative sphere and Right side. Tarentula is one of the most interesting of the spider poisons and we can get a better concept of it if we study its habits. Spiders were probably the first kind of animals to come and live on dry land instead of in the water. The name of this class is Arachnida and it also includes the scorpions.

Q.9. The method of Dynamisation of the liquid drug is known as (Bihar AYUSH Homoeo/MO/ QP/2014):
a) Trituration
b) Hydrolysis
c) Exsiccation
d) Succussion
Answer: (d)

Note Among above given variables (d) Succussion – is suggested – for-the method of dynamization of liquid drugs.
Stem: ‘Method of dynamisation of liquid drug’

Definition: it is a process of potentisation of medicinal substances which are soluble in liquid vehicle (particularly in alcohol) by downward friction.
Ref: Pg-201, 2nd Ed, A Text Book of Homoeopathic Pharmacy by Mandal and Mandal

Review of variables
(a) Trituration:
Definition: it is an ideal physical, mathematical process potentization by which preparation of medicine takes place by the use of solid vehicle, i.e., sugar of milk, by grinding in definite order according to pharmacopoeia.
This is the process used for potentisation (Dynamization) of drug substances which are insoluble in liquid vehicles.
Ref: Pg-194, 2nd Ed, A Textbook of Homoeopathic Pharmacy by Mandal and Mandal
(b) Hydrolysis:
Hydrolysis (from Greek hydro-, meaning “water”, and lysis, meaning “separation”) usually means the cleavage of chemical bonds by the addition of water. Where a carbohydrate is broken into its component sugar molecules by hydrolysis (e.g. sucrose being broken down into glucose and fructose), this is termed saccharification. Generally, hydrolysis or saccharification is a step in the degradation of a substance. (Ref:
Note Direct reference –NA-in Text Book of Mandal and Mandal.
(c) Exsiccation:
The act of drying out; in chemistry, the deprival of a crystalline substance of its water of crystallization. Ref:
Desiccation (as a substitute for Exsiccation):
It means removing moisture completely from substances for keeping hygroscopic materials, i.e., which absorbs moisture from atmosphere. Ref: Pg-49, 2nd Ed, A Textbook of Homoeopathic Pharmacy by Mandal and Mandal
(d) Succussion:
See above.

Q.10. Vehicle for Liniment is (Bihar AYUSH Homoeo/MO/QP/2014):
a) Paraffin
b) Spermaceti
c) Glycerin
d) Vegetable oil
Answer: (d)

Note Among the above given variables (d) Vegetable oil –is suggested for-Vehicle for liniment.
Stem: Vehicle for Liniment

Recall Liniments:
Definition: Liniments or embrocations are applications of an oily or spirituous consistence. These are mixtures or solutions of different medicines (Primarily Mother Tincture) in oil, alcoholic solutions or soap or emulsions and are suitable for rubbing or painting over the skin.
Preparation: 1 part of the required medicine is mixed with 4 parts of olive oil or ‘Tincture of soap’ (HPI Vol-I). Requirement:
*Required quantity of Mother tincture.
*Required quantity of olive oil or ‘Tincture of Soap’.
Ref: Pg-209, 2nd Ed, A Text Book of Homoeopathic Pharmacy by Mandal and Mandal

Review of variables
(a) Paraffin:

Vaselline is soft paraffin (Petroleum Jelly). It is a semisolid mixture of hydrocarbons. Used for preparation of emulsifying ointment, paraffin ointment and simple ointment.
Ref: Pg-134-A Textbook of Homoeopathic Pharmacy By Mandal and Mandal
(b) Spermeceti:
It is a waxy substance obtained from head of sperm whale (Family; Physeteridae). Uses: it is one of the solid fatty substances employed to give consistency to cerates and ointment, as in the well-known water ointments.
Ref: Pg-136, 2nd Ed, A Textbook of Homoeopathic Pharmacy by Mandal and Mandal
(c) Glycerine:
It is a clear colorless syrupy liquid. Odorless, taste sweet, followed by sensation of warmth. External uses:
-It is an antiseptic, emollient and demulcent (substance which softens or relaxes the skin upon which they are applied).
-It is used in ear discharges, as it absorbs the pus easily.
-It is used as an application on superficial ulcers of tongue and mouth.
Ref: Pg-128, 2nd Ed, A Textbook of Homoeopathic Pharmacy by Mandal and Mandal
(d) Vegetable oil:
Very commonly used vegetable oils include Olive oil, Almond oil (Used instead of Olive oil) in the preparation of Liniments.
Ref: Pg-131, 2nd Ed, A Text Book of Homoeopathic Pharmacy by Mandal and Mandal

Extended information
Definition: (Vehicle means transmission of conveyance):
Vehicle are those substances which are almost chemically neutral (neither acidic nor alkaline), therapeutically inert, having no medicinal property of their own. (Or if there is any that is negligible) but they are intended to carry the dynamic power of a drug safely to the interior of human organism to fight the disease force.
Vehicle use for external application:
Liquid vehicle:
Purified water
Almond oil
Olive oil
Sesame oil
Semisolid vehicle:
Vaseline (Soft paraffin)
Yellow soft paraffin
White soft paraffin
Waxes: Bees waxes; (i) Yellow bees wax (ii) White bees wax
Lanonin (anhydrous)
Prepared lard
Isin glass
Soap; (i) Soft soap (ii) Hard soap (iii) Curd soap
Ref: Pg-101, 2nd Ed, A Textbook of Homoeopathic Pharmacy by Mandal and Mandal

Q.11. All of the following belong to family Loganiaceae except: (NHMC/MD/Ent/2014):
a) Nux vomica
b) Ignatia
c) Rhododendron
d) Gelsemium
Answer: (c)

Note Among the variables given above the most suitable choice suggested is (c) Rhododendron which belongs to ‘Ericaceae’ family.

Review of variables

S.No. Variable Common name Family Reference
a. Nux vomica Poison nut Loganiaceae Allen’s Keynotes
b. Ignatia St. Ignatius bean Loganiaceae Allen’s Keynotes
c. Rhododendron Snow rose Ericaceae Allen’s Keynotes
d. Gelsemium Yellow jasmine Loginaceae Allen’s Keynotes

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