Q.1 Polarimeter is used for determining (Bihar/AYUSH/HMO/2014)
a) Specific Gravity
c) Optical rotation
d) Boiling point
Note Out of above given variables is the (c) Optical rotation – is determined by Polarimeter.
A polarimeter is a scientific instrument used to measure the angle of rotation caused by passing polarized light through an optically active substance.
Some chemical substances are optically active, and polarized (unidirectional) light will rotate either to the left (counter-clockwise) or right (clockwise) when passed through these substances. The amount by which the light is rotated is known as the angle of rotation. Ref: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polarimeter
a) Specific gravity:
Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of a substance to the density (mass of the same unit volume) of a reference substance. Apparent specific gravity is the ratio of the weight of a volume of the substance to the weight of an equal volume of the reference substance. The reference substance is nearly always water at its densest, (4°C) for liquids and for gases, air at room temperature, (21°C). Ref: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Specific_gravity
The pH is a measure of how acid or basic the water is. The pH measures the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in the water. The actual definition of pH is the negative log of the hydrogen ion concentration. The pH scale ranges from 0-14 and a pH of 7 is neutral. A pH below 7 is acidic and a pH above 7 is basic (see the graphic scale below). Ref: http://omp.gso.uri.edu/ompweb/doee/science/physical/chph1.htm
*The pH paper test
*pH meter and pH probe.
(c) Optical rotation: See as above.
(d) Boiling point: Boiling point is the temperature at which a liquid boils and turns to vapor.
The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the pressure of the atmosphere on the liquid, equal to 212°F (100°C) for water at sea level. Ref: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/boiling+point
Q.2. Which is responsible for the second sound of Heart (Bihar/AYUSH/HMO/2014):
a) Sudden closure of AV valves
b) Closure of semilunar valves
c) Opening of AV Valves
d) Opening of the Semilunar valves
Note Out of above given variables the (b) Closure of semilunar valves – is suggested.
Stem: ‘Second Heart Sound’
Second heart sound:
-It is produced on the closure of two semilunar valves (Aortic and -Pulmonary) at the onset of ventricular diastole.
-It is best heard in the second intercostal space (Base of the heart)
-It is abrupt, short interval and high pitched sound.
-Its duration is 0.1 to 0.14 sec.
-It coincides with ‘T’ wave of ECG.
Ref: Pg-120, Handbook of Physiology with MCQ’s by Agarwala
Q.3. Function of albumin is (Bihar AYUSH Homoeo/MO/QP/2014):
a) Maintain plasma osmotic pressure
b) Maintain plasma hydrostatic pressure
c) Coagulation of blood
Note The most suitable choice out of above-given variables is (a) Maintain plasma osmotic pressure –as a function of albumin.
|S.No.||Variables / Review||Remarks|
|a. Plasma protein: Albumin (60%)-|
Major contributor to osmotic
pressure of plasma. Oncotic
pressure, also called ‘colloid
osmotic pressure’, is the ‘pulling
force’, pulling fluids from the
surrounding tissue into the
|Maintain plasma osmotic pressure||True|
| b. Hydrostatic pressure is |
generated by the systolic force
of the heart.
It pushes water out of the capillaries.
|Maintain plasma hydrostatic pressure||-NA-|
| c. Plasma protein-Fibrinogen (4%)-|
Essential component of clotting system,
can be converted to insoluble fibrin.
|Coagulation of blood||-NA-|
| d. Globulins in the plasma has |
immune function, Five
immunoglobulin classes are defined
on the basis of their heavy chain
composition, named IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE, and IgD.
Q4. Testes does not produce? (Bihar/AYUSH/HMO/2014):
Note Out of the variables given above (c) Fructose – is suggested.
Review of variables
a) Estradiol: It is produced by testis. Estrogen in males is derived from peripheral conversion of testosterone. However little estrogen is produced by Sertoli and Leydig cells. Ref: Pg-647 Anand’s Human Anatomy for Dental Students By Anand Mahindra Kumar
(b) Testosterone: It is a steroid hormone secreted by the interstitial Leydig cells of testes. Ref: Pg-647 Anand’s Human Anatomy for Dental Students By Anand Mahindra Kumar
(c) Fructose: Fructose is produced by accessory male gland the Seminal vesicle. Seminal vesicle contribute about 60% of total semen volume. They secrete thick, sticky fluid which is rich in; potassium, fructose, phosphorylcholine, citric acid and ascorbic acid which are energy sources to spermatozoa. Ref: Pg-647 Anand’s Human Anatomy for Dental Students By Anand Mahindra Kumar
(d) Inhibin: Inhibin produced by Sertoli cells inhibit FSH secretion while testosterone inhibits LH Secretion. Ref: Pg-647 Anand’s Human Anatomy for Dental Students By Anand Mahindra Kumar
Q.5. Which of the following is a lipotropic factor? (Bihar AYUSH Homoeo/MO/QP/2014):
Note Out of the above given variables (d) Choline is a lipotropic factor.
Review of variables
(a) Proline: Proline is an α-amino acid, one of the twenty DNA-encoded amino acids. Ref: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proline
(b) Inositol: Inositol is a carbohydrate, though not a classical sugar. Inositol and some of its mono and polyphosphates function as the basis for a number of signaling and secondary messenger molecules. Ref: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inositol
(c) Cardiolipin: Cardiolipin is an important component of the inner mitochondrial membrane, where it constitutes about 20% of the total lipid composition. Ref: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cardiolipin
(d) Choline: Role of choline: it promotes the conversion of liver fat into choline-containing phospholipids (example; Lecithins) which are more readily transferred from the liver into the blood in the combined form (i.e. as a part of phospholipid molecules – lecithin, sphingomyelin). Ref: Pg-589,2nd Ed, Textbook of Physiology Vol-II, By A.K. Jain
Q.6. Major role of glucocorticoids in carbohydrate metabolism is (Bihar/AYUSH Homoeo/MO/ QP/2014):
a) Stimulates glycogenesis in muscle
b) Stimulates glycolysis in muscle
c) Stimulates gluconeogenesis in liver
d) Increased uptake of glucose by extra hepatic tissue
Note Out of above given variables (c) Stimulates gluconeogenesis in liver – is suggested for – role of Glucocorticoids in carbohydrate metabolism
Stem: Role of glucocorticoids in carbohydrate metabolism
Glucocorticoids are called so because they increase gluconeogenesis. It leads to increased hepatic glucose synthesis (gluconeogenesis) and increased hepatic glycogen content. Action of Glucocorticoid is as under:
The adrenal cortex secrets glucocorticoids with widespread effects on metabolism of carbohydrate, protein and fat.
The main glucocorticoid is cortisol (hydrocortisone). The main action of glucocorticoid is on intermediary metabolism. They increase the production of glucose. Glucocorticoids are called so because they increase gluconeogenesis. Glucocorticoid is an insulin antagonist. It also suppresses insulin secretion. Decreased insulin action results in inhibition of peripheral glucose uptake, increased hepatic glucose synthesis (gluconeogenesis) and increased hepatic glycogen content. Cortisol also stimulates release of glucagon. Most glucocorticoids have some mineralocorticoids –like action also.
The action of glucocorticoids on protein metabolism are catabolic. The catabolic effects of glucocorticoids on protein metabolism results in an increase in protein breakdown and nitrogen excretion. Due to these effects, there is mobilization of amino acids from bone, skin, muscle, and connective tissue.
Cortisol decreases peripheral protein synthesis and amino acid uptake. Thus, cortisol increases delivery of amino acid to the liver. These amino acids are used to synthesize glucose. Hyper-aminoacidemia stimulates glucagon secretion. Glucagon facilitates gluconeogenesis. Prolonged exposure to high levels of corticosteroids leads to a catabolic state with negative nitrogen balance, proximal muscle weakness and insulin resistance diabetes mellitus.
Glucocorticoids stimulate peripheral lipolysis. Glucocorticoids enhance the activation of cellular lipase by lipid-mobilizing hormones (e.g., catecholamine’s and pituitary peptides). Peripheral adipose tissue mass decreases, whereas abdominal and interscapular fat expand.
Redistribution of body fat results in truncal obesity and peripheral fat depletion. Ref: http://www.medicinemcq.com/pdf/Y_QA_1395227762.pdf
Q.7. Glomerular filtration is most dependent on? (Bihar/AYUSH Homoeo/MO/QP/2014):
a) Renal blood flow
b) Pressure in Bowman’s capsule
c) Glomerular capillary pressure
d) Plasma membrane pressure
Note Out of above given variables (c) Glomerular capillary pressure – is suggested.
Stem: Glomerular filtration
GFR is dependent on Glomerular Capillary Pressure.
Review of variables
(a) Renal blood flow:-NA-
When the kidney is perfused at moderate pressures (90–220 mm Hg in the dog), the renal vascular resistance varies with the pressure so that renal blood flow is relatively constant. Auto-regulation of this type occurs in other organs, and several factors contribute to it (see Chapter 33). Ref: Pg-644-Ganong’s review of Medical Physiology 23rd Ed
(b) Pressure in Bowman’s capsule:-NA-
The pressure in the glomerular capillaries is higher than that in other capillary beds because the afferent arterioles are short, straight branches of the interlobular arteries. Furthermore, the vessels “downstream” from the glomeruli, the efferent arterioles, have a relatively high resistance. The capillary hydrostatic pressure is opposed by the hydrostatic pressure in Bowman’s capsule. Pg-647-Ganong’s review of Medical Physiology 23rd Ed
(c) Glomerular capillary pressure:-Yes-
When Extracellular fluid (ECF) volume is decreased, blood pressure falls, glomerular capillary pressure declines, and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) therefore falls.
Ref: Pg-669-Ganong’s review of Medical Physiology 23rd Ed
(d) Plasma membrane pressure:-NA-
Cell membrane is generally referred to as the plasma membrane. Ref: Pg-644-Ganong’s review of Medical Physiology 23rd Ed
Q.8. Auditory impulses relay to (Bihar AYUSH Homoeo/MO/QP/2014):
a) Superior colliculus
b) Medial lemniscus
c) Interior geniculate body
d) Medial geniculate body
Note Out of above-given variables (d) Medial geniculate body –is suggested for-relays auditory impulses.
Stem: Auditory impulses relay
The medial geniculate nucleus (MGN) or medial geniculate body (MGB) is part of the auditory thalamus and represents the thalamic relay between the inferior colliculus (IC) and the auditory cortex (AC). Ref: http://dnbhelp.files.wordpress.com/2011/08/central-auditory-pathway.jpg
Review of variables
(a) Superior colliculus:-NA-
The superior colliculus is usually described as a VISUAL reflex center.
(b) Medial lemniscus:-NA-
It carries vibratory and touch-pressure sense up to thalamus from Posterior White column (Nu Gracilis and N. Cuneatus).
(c) Interior geniculate body:-NA-
(d) Medial geniculate body:-Yes-See as above-.
Q.9. Ovulation is associated with sudden rise in (Bihar AYUSH Homoeo/MO/QP/2014):
Note Out of above given variables (c) LH (“LH surge”) – is suggested
Stem: ‘Ovulation is associated with sudden rise in LH’
Luteinizing hormone is produced by gonadotrophic cells in the anterior pituitary gland. In females, an acute rise of LH (“LH surge”) triggers ovulation and development of the corpus luteum. In males, where LH had also been called interstitial cell-stimulating hormone (ICSH), it stimulates Leydig cell production of testosterone. It acts synergistically with FSH. Ref: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luteinizing_hormone
Review of variables
Prolactin (PRL), also known as luteotropic hormone or luteotropin, is best known for its role in enabling female mammals to produce milk. It is secreted from the pituitary gland in response to eating, mating, estrogen treatment, ovulation, and nursing. Prolactin is secreted in a pulsatile fashion in between these events. Prolactin also plays an essential role in metabolism, regulation of the immune system, and pancreatic development. Ref: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prolactin
Testosterone is secreted primarily by the testicles of males and the ovaries of females, although small amounts are also secreted by the adrenal glands. It is the principal male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid.
In men, testosterone plays a key role in the development of male reproductive tissues such as the testis and prostate as well as promoting secondary sexual characteristics such as increased muscle, bone mass, and the growth of body hair. In addition, testosterone is essential for health and well-being as well as the prevention of osteoporosis.
On average, in adult males, levels of testosterone are about 7–8 times as great as in adult females, but, as the metabolic consumption of testosterone in males is greater, the daily production is about 20 times greater in men. Females are also more sensitive to the hormone. Ref: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Testosterone
(c) LH:-NA-See as above-
Oxytocin is a mammalian neuro-hypophysial hormone produced by the hypothalamus and stored and secreted by the posterior pituitary gland. Oxytocin acts primarily as a neuromodulator in the brain. Oxytocin plays an important role in the neuroanatomy of intimacy, specifically in sexual reproduction of both sexes, in particular during and after childbirth. It is released in large amounts after distension of the cervix and uterus during labor, facilitating birth, maternal bonding, and, after stimulation of the nipples, lactation. Both childbirth and milk ejection result from positive feedback mechanisms. Recent studies have begun to investigate oxytocin’s role in various behaviors, including orgasm, social recognition, pair bonding, anxiety, and maternal behaviors. For this reason, it is sometimes referred to as the “bonding hormone”. Ref: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxytocin
Q.10. CD-95 has a major role in (Bihar/AYUSH/MO/QP/2014):
b) Cell necrosis
c) Interferon activation
Note Out of the variables given above (a) Apoptosis – is suggested.
T cell lines from HLA-DR2-positive individuals show enhanced production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a cytokine homologous to CD95 ligand, in response to specific antigen. CD95 expression and susceptibility to CD95-mediated apoptosis. Ref: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9521618
T-cell-receptor (TCR)-induced apoptosis was recently shown to involve the CD95 (APO-1/Fas) receptor. Ref: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v375/n6531/abs/375497a0.html
Review of variables
Apoptosis is a form of coordinated and internally programmed cell death. After the cell has been initiated into self-destruction mode, the program inbuilt in the cell gets activated. Activation of cell receptors; activated caspases set in activation of FAS receptor (CD 95), cell surface receptor present on cytotoxic (CD8+) T cells, belonging to the family of tumour necrosis factor receptors (TNF-R). Ref-Pg-46, 48, Harshmohan, 6th Ed.
(b) Cell necrosis:
Necrosis is a form of cell injury that results in the premature death of cells in living tissue by autolysis. Necrosis is caused by factors external to the cell or tissue, such as infection, toxins, or trauma that result in the unregulated digestion of cell components. Ref-Pg-44, Harshmohan, 6th Ed
(c) Interferon activation:
Interferon (IFN)-, Causes activation of macrophages and neutrophils and is associated with synthesis of nitric acid synthase. Ref-Pg-139, Harshmohan, 6th Ed
The interferon’s are a family of cytokine mediators critically involved in alerting the cellular immune system to viral infection of host cells. The therapeutic potential of the IFNs is currently the focus of intense attention in a number of virus-associated diseases, tumours and autoimmune disorders. Ref: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11256746
Proteolysis is the breakdown of proteins into smaller polypeptides or amino acids. Ref: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proteolysis
Q.11. First heart sound occurs during the period of: (NHMC/MD/Ent/2014):
a) Filling of the ventricles.
b) Isovolumic relaxation.
c) Isovolumic contraction.
d) Period of ejection.
Note First Heart sound is produced during the period of (c) Isovolumic contraction
Stem: The cardiac cycle: Ref: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diastole#mediaviewer/File:Wiggers_Diagram.svg
Q.12. Which of the following statements is false with respect to maintenance of faecal continence and defaecation? (NHMC/MD/Ent/2014
a) Parasympathetic nervous system relaxes the internal anal sphincter.
b) Sympathetic nervous system stimulates tonic contraction of the internal anal sphincter
c) When faecal material enters the upper anal canal, stimulation of lumbar segments 1,2,3 leads to activation of pudendal nerve.
d) Pudendal nerve maintains tonic contraction of the external anal sphincter
Note Out of above given variables (c) When fecal material enters the upper anal canal, stimulation of lumbar segment 1, 2, 3 leads to activation of pudendal nerve. –is suggested –for false statement for maintenance of fecal continence and defaecation.
Stem: Sphincter control
Sphincter control: The sympathetic nerve supply to the internal (involuntary) anal sphincter is excitatory, whereas the parasympathetic supply is inhibitory. This sphincter relaxes when the rectum is distended. The