Q1. The Fetal component of Placenta is (Bihar/AYUSH/MO/QP/2014):
a) Chorion laeve
b) Chorion frondosum
c) Decidua capsularis
d) Decidua basalis
Note Out of above given variables (b) Chorine frondosum – is suggested.
Review of variables
Chorion laeve: The part of the chorion that is in contact with the decidua capsularis undergoes atrophy, so that by the fourth month scarcely a trace of the villi is left. This part of the chorion becomes smooth and is named the chorion laeve (from the Latin word levis, meaning smooth). As it takes no share in the formation of the placenta, this is also named the non-placental part of the chorion. As the chorion grows, the chorion laeve comes in contact with the decidua parietalis and these layers fuse. Ref: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chorion
Chorion frondosum: The chorion frondosum arises from the polar pole of the human embryo trophoblast. It consists of a layer of trophoblasts and extra-embryonic mesoderm surrounded by numerous villi. This portion of the placenta is located at the site of implantation.
Structurally the placenta has two components, the fetal chorion frondosum and the maternal decidua basalis; functionally, the placental circulation involves two distinct parts, the fetal blood vessels in the chorionic villi and the maternal blood in the intervillous spaces. Ref: Pg-148, A Guide to Reproduction: social issues and human concerns by Irina Pollard
Ref: https://www.inkling.com/read/langmans-medical-embryology-thomas-sadler-12th/chapter-8/ chorion-frondosum-and-decidua
Decidua capsularis: It is the layer of endometrium overlying the implanted chorionic vesicle is like a capsule around the chorion. Around the 4th month of gestation, the decidua capsularis comes into contact with the decidua parietalis. The merging of these two, causes the uterine cavity to become obliterated. Ref: Pg-601, Varney’s Midwifery by Tekoa L. King
Decidua basalis: Decidua basalis is the site where implantation occurs and is the future site of a maternal portion of the placenta. Ref: https://www.inkling.com/read/langmans-medical-embryology-thomas-sadler-12th/chapter-8/ chorion-frondosum-and-decidua
Q.2. Primary motor area of the brain (Bihar/AYUSH/HMO/2014):
a) Superior temporal gyri
b) Post central gyri
c) Pre central gyri
d) Inferior frontal gyri
Note Out of above given variables (c) Pre-central gyri – is suggested for Primary motor area of brain.
Stem: ‘Primary Motor Area’
In 1870, Hitzig and Fritsch electrically stimulated various parts of a dog’s motor cortex. They observed that depending on what part of the cortex they stimulated, a different part of the body contracted. Then they found that if they destroyed this same small area of the cortex, the corresponding part of the body became paralyzed. This is how it was discovered that every part of the body has a particular region of the primary motor cortex that controls its movement.
Review of variables
Ref: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inferior_ frontal_gyrus
|Contains Auditory |
Cortex –Broadmann’s area
no 41 and 42
|Superior temporal gyri||-NA-|
|Contains Primary |
Broadmann’s area no 1,2,3
|Contains Primary Motor |
Cortex – Broadmann’s area
|Contains Broadmann’s |
area no: 44 & 45 (Motor
|Inferior frontal gyri||-NA-|
Q.3. After birth of an infant which artery is obliterated (Bihar/AYUSH/HMO/2014)
a) Obliteration of the hypo-gastric artery
b) Obliteration of the epigastric artery
c) Obliteration of the umbilical artery
d) Obliteration of brachial artery
Note Out of above given variables the (c) Obliteration of the umbilical artery –is suggested – occurs after birth of an infant.
Stem: After birth of an infant which artery is obliterated
Umbilical arteries constrict at birth:
*To prevent loss of infant’s blood.
*Umbilical cord is not tied for 30-60 seconds so that blood flow through umbilical vein continues, transferring fetal blood from placenta to the infant. Ref: https://mcb.berkeley.edu/courses/mcb135e/fetal.html
Important circulatory changes occurring after birth are as under:
|S.No.||Fetal Structure||Adult structure|
|1.||Foramen ovale||Fossa ovalis|
|3.||Ductus venosus||Ligamentum venosum|
|4.||Umbilical arteries and abdominal ligaments||Medial umbilical ligaments, superior vesicular artery (supplies bladder)|
|5.||Ductus Arteriosum||Ligamentum arteriosum|
Review of variables
a) Obliteration of the hypogastric artery: Circulatory changes after birth do not involve obliteration of Hypogastric artery.
Hypogastric artery: The internal iliac artery (formerly known as the hypogastric artery) is the main artery of the pelvis. It is the inner branch of the common iliac artery one on either side of the body; divides into several branches that supply blood to the pelvic and gluteal areas. Ref: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/hypogastric+artery Ref: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internal_iliac_artery
b) Obliteration of epigastric artery: Circulatory changes after birth do not involve obliteration of epigastric artery. Epigastric arteries include the following:
*Superior epigastric artery: Origin, internal thoracic artery; anastomoses with Inferior epigastric artery at umbilicus.
*Inferior epigastric artery: Origin, external iliac; anastamoses with superior epigastric artery at umbilicus.
*Superficial epigastric: origin, femoral; distribution, abdominal wall, groin. Ref: http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Obliterated+umbilical+artery
c) Obliteration of the umbilical artery: Umbilical artery becomes obliterated after birth of baby. Because certain changes occur in cardiovascular system after birth, as these are no more required.
d) Obliteration of brachial artery: Circulatory changes after birth do not involve obliteration of brachial artery.
Brachial artery: origin ,continuation of axillary artery; branches, superficial brachial, deep brachial, nutrient to humerus, superior ulnar collateral, inferior ulnar collateral, radial, and ulnar arteries; distribution, shoulder, arm, forearm, hand. Ref: http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Obliterated+umbilical+artery
Q.4. One of the boundary of Inguinal Triangle is (Bihar/AYUSH/MO/QP/2014):
a) Conjoint tendon
b) Pectineal line
c) Linea semilunaris
d) Inferior epigastric artery
Note Out of the variables given above the (d) Inferior epigastric artery-as one of the boundary of Inguinal Triangle.
Stem: Boundary of Inguinal Triangle
Inguinal triangle is also known as Hasselbach’s Triangle
1. Medial boundary: Rectus abdominis
2. Lateral boundary: Inferior epigastric vessels
3. Inferior boundary: Inguinal ligament
Hesselbach’s triangle helps defining the ‘inguinal hernia.’
Direct Inguinal Hernia (within Hesselbach’s Triangle)
Breaches posterior inguinal wall
Passes medial to inferior epigastric vessels
Indirect Inguinal Hernia (out of Hesselbach’s Triangle)
Enters Inguinal Canal lateral to inferior epigastric vessels
Exits Inguinal Canal inferior to inguinal ligament
Q.5. Nerve supply of Extraocular muscles (Bihar/AYUSH/HMO/2014):
d) All of the above
Note Out of above given variables (d) All of the above – is suggested.
Stem: ‘Nerve supply to extraocular muscle’
Extra-ocular muscles of eye:
The muscle acting on the eyeball to produce various movements of the eye are called extra-ocular muscles, which consists of the following:
Four recti: Superior rectus, Inferior rectus, Medial rectus, Lateral rectus
Origin: From posterior part of the orbit from a common tendinous ring
Insertion: The muscles proceed forwards in a cone of muscles and spread out at the sites of insertion into the sclera of the eyeball.
Nerve supply: All muscles are supplied by Oculomotor nerve (CN-III). Except: Lat. Rectus is supplied by- Abducent nerve (CN-VI)
Action: Superior rectus – elevates, adducts and medially rotates the eyeball Inferior rectus – depresses, adducts and medially rotates the eyeball Medial rectus – adducts the eyeball Lateral rectus – abducts the eyeball
Two oblique muscles:
Origin: From the lesser wing of sphenoid bone
Insertion: Into the sclera behind the equator of eyeball
Nerve supply: Trochlear nerve (CN-IV)
Action: Depresses, abducts and medially rotate the eye ball
Origin: From orbital surface of maxilla in the floor of the orbit
Insertion: Into the sclera behind the equator of the eyeball
Nerve supply: Oculomotor nerve (CN-III)
Action: Elevates, abducts and laterally rotate the eyeball
Q6. Meiosis occurs in males in (Bihar/AYUSH/MO/QP/2014):
c) Vas deference
d) Seminal vesicles
Note Out of above variables (b) Seminiferous tubules – is suggested-for meiosis occurs in males.
Stem: Meiosis occurs in males in
Seminiferous tubules are located within the testes, and are the specific location of meiosis.
Spermatocytogenesis is the male form of gametocytogenesis and results in the formation of spermatocytes possessing half the normal complement of genetic material. In spermatocytogenesis, a diploid spermatogonium, which resides in the basal compartment of the seminiferous tubules, divides mitotically, producing two diploid intermediate cells called primary spermatocytes. Each primary spermatocyte then moves into the adluminal compartment of the seminiferous tubule and duplicates its DNA and subsequently undergoes meiosis I to produce two haploid secondary spermatocytes, which will later divide once more into haploid spermatids. This division implicates sources of genetic variation, such as random inclusion of either parental chromosomes, and chromosomal crossover, to increase the genetic variability of the gamete. Ref: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spermatogenesis
Q7. Which rib of the chest is more oblique (Bihar/AYUSH/Homoeo/MO/QP):
a) 1st rib
b) 2nd rib
c) 9th rib
d) 10th rib
Note Out of the above given variables (c) Ninth rib – is suggested – for the most oblique rib.
Review of variables
a) 1st Rib: Shortest, strongest, highest and more curved.
b) 2nd Rib: It joins the sternal angle. It is a landmark from where the ribs are counted.
c) 9th Rib: It is the most oblique rib.
d) 10th Rib: It is the last false rib.
Q8. Spinal cord in an adult end at the level of (Bihar AYUSH Homoeo/MO/QP/2014):
a) Lumbar 1
b) Lumbar 3
c) Lumbar 5
d) Sacral 1
Note Out of above given variables (a) Lumbar 1-is suggested – for-at this level spinal cord ends in an adult
Review of variables
|By the time adulthood is |
reached, because the bones
of the vertebral column continue
to grow, the end of the cord is at
\the level of L1 or L2 (Upper end).
The tip of the spinal cord is called
|In humans, the spinal cord stops|
growing in infancy and the end
of the spinal cord is about the
level of the third lumbar vertebra,
or L3, at birth.
|Below the conus, there is a |
spray of spinal roots that is
frequently called the
cauda equina or horse’s tail.
|Below the conus, |
S 1 leaves the spinal cord
Q9. A.V. Node is located in the (Bihar/AYUSH/HMO/2014):
a) Interatrial septum
b) Moderator band
c) Muscular part of inter ventricular septum
d) Membranous part of inter ventricular septum
Note Out of above given variables (a) Interatrial septum – is suggested-for location of A.V node in Heart.
Stem: A.V. Node
Review of variables
|The atrioventricular node (AV node)|
is located in the posteroinferior region
of the interatrial septum near the
opening of the coronary sinus.
|The Moderator band (also known|
as septomarginal trabecula) is a
muscular band found in the right
ventricle. It extends from the base
of the anterior papillary muscle to
the ventricular septum. It was thought
to prevent over distension of the
ventricle, and was named the
It carries part of the right bundle
branch to the anterior papillary
muscle. This seems to facilitate
conduction time, allowing
co-ordinated contraction of the
anterior papillary muscle.
|The inter-ventricular septum |
separates the left ventricle from
the right ventricle. The lower
greater portion of it is thick
and muscular and constitutes the muscular ventricular septum.
|Muscular part of |
|The greater portion of it is thick |
and muscular and constitutes the
muscular ventricular septum.
Its upper and posterior part, which
seprates the aortic vestibule from
the lower part of the right atrium and
upper part of the right ventricle, is
thin and fibrous, and is termed the
membranous ventricular septum
Q10. Gluteus maximus muscle is inserted into (Bihar/AYUSH/HMO/2014):
a) Greater trochanter
b) Shaft of femur
c) Gluteal tuberosity and iliotibial tract
d) Iliotibial tract
Note Out of above given variables (c) Gluteal tuberosity and iliotibial tract is suggested for Gluteus maximus muscle insertion.
Stem: Insertion of Gluteus maximus
Origin: In between Posterior gluteal line and Posterior inferior surface of sacrum and coccyx
Insertion: Gluteal tuberosity of femur; anterior aspect of lateral tibial condyle via the iliotibial tract.
Nerve supply: Inferior gluteal nerve (L5, S1, S2)
Action: Extends laterally and rotates thigh at the hip.
Ref: http://www.getbodysmart.com/ ap/muscularsystem/thighmuscles/ posteriormuscles/gluteusmaximus/tutorial.html
Q11. Duodenal ulcer bleeds from (Bihar/AYUSH/HMO/2014):
a) Left gastric artery
b) Gastroduodenal artery
c) Gastric artery
d) Pancreatico-duodenal artery
Note Out of above given variables (b). Gastro duodenal artery – is suggested for-bleeds in case of duodenal ulcer.
Stem: ‘Duodenal ulcer bleeds from’
Gastroduodenal artery arises from the common hepatic artery of the coeliac trunk. It supplies to the pylorus and proximal part of the duodenum and indirectly to the pancreatic head. This is the bleeder artery in the case of Duodenal ulcer.