Q.1. Artificial Chronic Disease are (Bihar AYUSH Homoeo/MO/QP/2014):
(a) Drug diseases
(b) Drug and miasmatic diseases
(c) Miasmatic diseases
(d) None of the above
Note Out of the above-given variables, (a) Drug diseases-is suggested-for Artificial chronic disease.
Stem: ‘Artificial Chronic Disease’
Artificial Chronic Diseases; these diseases (Drug-induced) originate by prolonged use of violent and large doses of medicines wherein the vital force is weakened to a large extent producing faulty organic alterations in the body in order to prevent the body from total destruction.
Review of Variables
(a) Drug disease (Artificial chronic disease):
Aph. 74: Among chronic diseases, we must still, alas! reckon those so commonly met with, artificially produced in allopathic treatment by the prolonged use of violent heroic medicines in large and increasing doses, by the abuse of calomel, corrosive sublimate, mercurial ointment, nitrate of silver, iodine and its ointments, opium, valerian, cinchona bark and quinine, foxglove, prussic acid, sulphur and sulphuric acid, perennial purgatives, (*) venesections, [“shedding streams of blood” in the Sixth Edition], leeches, issues, setons, ..etc., whereby the vital force [“vital energy” in the Sixth Edition] is sometimes weakened to an unmerciful extent, sometimes, if it do not succumb, gradually abnormally deranged (by each substance in a peculiar manner) in such a way that, in order to maintain life against these inimical and destructive attacks, it must produce a revolution in the organism, and either deprive some part of its irritability and sensibility, or exalt these to an excessive degree, cause dilatation or contraction, relaxation or induration or even total destruction of certain parts, and develop faulty organic alterations here and there in the interior or the exterior (1) (cripple the body internally or externally), in order to preserve the organism from complete destruction of life by the ever-renewed, hostile assaults of such destructive forces. (+) Ref: Pg-162, 163 Organon of Medicine by B.K. Sarkar
Aph. 75: These inroads on human health effected by the allopathic non-healing art (more particularly in recent times) are of all chronic diseases the most deplorable, the most incurable; and I regret to add that it is apparently impossible to discover or to hit upon any remedies for their cure when they have reached any considerable height. Ref: Pg-163, Organon of Medicine by B.K. Sarkar
(b) Drug and miasmatic disease: (When true miasmatic diseases get complicated with further suppressive or palliative treatment): To render (through ignorance) if not fatal, at all events incurable, the vast majority (99/100) of all diseases, namely, those of a chronic character, by continually weakening and tormenting the debilitated patient, already suffering without that from his disease and by adding new destructive drug diseases, this clearly seems to be the unhallowed main business of the old school of medicine (allopathy) and very easy it is when once one has become on adept in this pernicious practice and is sufficiently insensible to the stings of conscience! Ref: Pg-15, 16, Second Para, Preface to the fifth edition, Organon of Medicine by B.K. Sarkar It seems that the unhallowed principal business of the old school of medicine (allopathy) it to render incurable if not fatal the majority of diseases, those made chronic through ignorance by continually weakening and tormenting the already debilitated patient by the further addition of new destructive drug diseases. When this pernicious practice has become a habit and one is rendered insensible to the admonitions of conscience, this becomes a very easy business indeed. Ref: Pg-9, Fourth Para, Author’s preface to the sixth edition, Organon of Medicine 5th 6th Edition Hahnemann_Dudgeon
(c) Miasmatic disease:
Aph. 78: The true natural chronic diseases are those that arise from a chronic miasm, which when left to themselves, and unchecked by the employment of those remedies that are specific for them, always go on increasing and growing worse, notwithstanding the best mental and corporeal regimen, and torment the patient to the end of his life with ever aggravated sufferings. These [“excepting those produced by medical malpractice (§74), “ in the Sixth Edition] are the most numerous and greatest scourges of the human race; for the most robust constitution, the best-regulated mode of living and the most vigorous energy of the vital force are insufficient for their eradication. Ref: Pg-164, Organon of Medicine by B.K. Sarkar
Aph. 79: Hitherto syphilis alone has been to some extent known as such a chronic miasmatic disease, which when uncured ceases only with the termination of life. Sycosis (the condylomatous disease), equally ineradicable by the vital force without proper medicinal treatment, was not recognized as a chronic miasmatic disease of a peculiar character, which it nevertheless undoubtedly is, and physicians imagined they had cured it when they had destroyed the growths upon the skin, but the persisting dyscrasia occasioned by it escaped their observation. Ref: Pg-164, Organon of Medicine by B.K. Sarkar
Aph. 80: Incalculably greater and more important than the two chronic miasms just named, however, is the chronic miasm of psora, which, whilst those two reveal their specific internal dyscrasia, the one by the venereal chancre, the other by the cauliflower-like growths, does also, after the completion of the internal infection of the whole organism, announce by a peculiar cutaneous eruption, sometimes consisting only of a few vesicles accompanied by intolerable voluptuous tickling itching (and a peculiar odour), the monstrous internal chronic miasm-the psora, the only real fundamental cause and producer of all the other numerous, I may say innumerable, forms of disease, (1) which, under the names of nervous debility, hysteria, hypochondriasis, mania, melancholia, imbecility, madness, epilepsy and convulsions of all sorts, softening of the bones (rachitis), scoliosis and cyphosis, caries, cancer, fungus haematodes, neoplasms, gout, haemorrhoids, jaundice, cyanosis, dropsy, amenorrhoea, haemorrhage from the stomach, nose, lungs, bladder and womb, of asthma and ulceration of the lungs, of impotence and barrenness, of megrim, deafness, cataract, amaurosis, urinary calculus, paralysis, defects of the senses and pains of thousands of kinds, ..etc., figure in systematic works on pathology as peculiar, independent diseases. Ref: Pg-164, Organon of Medicine by B.K. Sarkar Those with a simple expression of miasm as the fundamental cause (Hahnemann, 1896) can be clinically classified into Psora (Aph 80-82), Syphilis and Sycosis (Aph 79). Otherwise, they may express as a complex disease, i.e. as a combination of two or more miasms. These are psoro-sycotic, psorosyphilitic (tubercular), syco-syphilitic, psoro-syco-syphilitic. Ref: Pg-337, Chronic Diseases –Chart-Organon of Medicine by B.K. Sarkar
Aph. 77: (Pseudo-Chronic Disease): Those diseases are inappropriately named chronic, which persons incur who expose themselves continually to avoidable noxious influences, who are in the habit of indulging in injurious liquors or ailments, are addicted to the dissipation of many kinds which undermine the health, who undergo prolonged abstinence from things that are necessary for the support of life, who reside in unhealthy localities, especially marshy districts, who are housed in cellars or other confined dwellings, who are deprived of exercise or of open-air, who ruin their health by overexertion of body or mind, who live in a constant state of worry, ..etc. These states of ill-health, which persons bring upon themselves, disappear spontaneously, provided no chronic miasm lurks in the body, under an improved mode of living, and they cannot be called chronic diseases. Ref: Pg-164, Organon of Medicine by B.K. Sarkar
Note Pseudo-chronic diseases (Aph 77). In this category are included cases that resolve following changes in diet and lifestyle, correction of bad habits, or environmental influences. In these situations, the underlying miasm is not necessarily affected and often an acute/ palliative remedy is all that is required to set things right. CURRENTLY, THESE ARE RAMPANT AND KNOWN AS ‘LIFESTYLE DISEASES’ –i.e., HT, DM, Obesity, unless these are corrected in early stages, these become incurable and bring about the complications; OA, HT, CAD.
Q.2. The chronic disease contains (Bihar/AYUSH/MO/QP):
(a) Only proving of drug
(b) Proving of drugs and nature of chronic disease
(c) Proving, nature of chronic diseases and their effective treatment
(d) Nature of chronic disease
Note Out of the above-given variables, (c) Proving, nature of chronic disease and their effective treatment – is suggested
Stem: ‘The chronic disease contains’
The book in reference is ‘The Chronic Diseases, their Peculiar Nature and Their Homoeopathic Cure’ by Dr Samuel Hahnemann.
The contents are as under:
1. First part contains (a) Nature of chronic diseases (b) Symptoms of latent psora (c) Cure of the chronic diseases (d) Sycosis (e) Syphilis (f) Psora (g) The Medicines: The medicines which have been found most suitable and excellent in chronic diseases so far, I shall present in the following part according to their pure action on the human body, as well those used in the treatment of the diseases of psoric origin, as those used in syphilis and in the figwart-disease.
2. Second part contains (a) Antipsoric medicines
Note Following medicine, which are not present in Materia Medica Pura. But given in Second part of Chronic Disease are as under 1. Amm carb 2. Baryta carb 3. Calc carb 4. Graphites 5. Iodum 6. Lycopodium 7. Mag carb 8. Mag mur 9. Nat carb 10. Nit acid 11. Petroleum 12. Phosphorous 13. Sepia 14. Silicea 15. Zincum
The pathogenesis of the above medicines appears without a word of explanations as to how the symptoms were obtained and without acknowledgement of fellow observers. Ref: The Chronic Diseases, their Peculiar Nature and their Homoeopathic Cure by Dr Samuel Hahnemann
Q.3. Which is the curative action from the options below (Bihar/AYUSH/MO/QP/2014):
(a) Every medicine deranges the vital force
(b) Resistant action by the vital force
(c) Alternating action
(d) Action of miasm
Note Out of the variables given above (b) Resistant action by the vital force – is suggested for the curative action.
Stem: The curative action
Aph.-63: Every agent that acts upon the vitality, every medicine, deranges more or less the vital force, and causes a certain alteration in the health of the individual for a longer or a shorter period. This is termed as the primary action. Although a product of the medicinal and vital powers conjointly, it is principally due to the former power. To its action our vital force endeavours to oppose its own energy. This resistant action is a property, is indeed an automatic action of our life-preserving power, which goes by the name of secondary action or counteraction. Ref: Pg-153, Organon of Medicine by B.K. Sarkar
Commentary: Though every symptom may be strictly due to the resultant of the actions and reactions between the life-force and the drug-force, the symptoms complex manifested at this first phase is called the primary effect of the drug because here the drugs act on the life-force and the latter is not yet reacting to it. This phase lasts for a longer or shorter space of time. After the expiry of this phase the vital force seems to rally, and the result (i.e. the secondary action or counter-action) may be two-fold:
1. Firstly, if there exists a possibility of evoking the exact opposite of the symptom produced by the primary effect of the drug, the vital force reacts in the form of exact opposite state of feeling and function (counter-effect) which is proportionate to the energy of the Life-force and to the intensity of the primary impression made upon it by the noxious agent or drug. This is called the secondary action, counter-action.
2. Or, secondary, when an opposite condition to the primary effect of a drug is not possible, the vital force tries to counteract the deviation from the healthy condition of the organism, produced by the primary action of a drug, in such a way that the original normal healthy state of the individual is restored thereby. This is called the secondary action, curative action. Ref: Pg-321, Organon of Medicine by B.K. Sarkar
Review of Variables
(a) Every medicine deranges the vital force: Every agent that acts upon the vitality, every medicine, deranges more or less the vital force, and causes a certain alteration in the health of the individual for a longer or a shorter period. This is termed as primary action. Ref: Aph. 63. Organon of Medicine by B.K. Sarkar
(b) Resistant action by the vital force: See as above
(c) Alternating action: Among these symptoms, there occur in the case of some medicines, not a few which are partially, or under certain conditions, directly opposite to other symptoms that have previously or subsequently appeared, but which are not therefore to be regarded as actual Secondary action or the mere reaction of the vital force, but which only represent the alternating state of the various paroxysms of the primary action; they are termed Alternating actions. Ref: Aph.-115. Organon of Medicine by B.K. Sarkar
(d) Action of miasm: ….Thus the cure and the preventive of its reappearance must follow as a law of cure. Hahnemann’s recognition of this primitive existence in a chronic miasm is the only true concept of disease. The new phenomena, or that which is supposed to be new disease, is nothing more than the daily working of the miasm, or the further development of miasmatic action, the forward movement of a perverted life action, a miasmatic revelation of that unknown dynamis, psora, or some other miasm, as seen in its pathological changes in the organism………. Ref: Pg-67, The Chronic Miasm by J.H. Allen
Q.4. “The subjects of Anatomy, Physiology are not life, but only results of life” quoted by (Bihar/ AYUSH/MO/QP/2014):
(b) Stuart close
(c) J.T. Kent
(d) CFS Hahnemann
Note Among above-given variables the (a) Dunham –is suggested for – the quote-“The subjects of Anatomy, Physiology are not life but only results of life”.
Stem: ‘The Subjects of Anatomy, Physiology is not life, but only results of life’
As, therefore, Physiology concerns herself with the result of life, so does Pathology take cognizance of the results of disease. For it must be repeated that as the functions of healthy organs and the tissues of the healthy body which are respectively ‘The Subjects of Anatomy and Physiology are not life, but only results of life’, so the abnormal functions and the altered tissues of the diseased body, which are respectively the subjects of the science of Pathology and Pathological Anatomy are not disease itself, but only the results of disease. These distinctions, it will be perceived, have a direct and most important bearing upon the science of Therapeutics, which has for its object the cure of disease. Ref: Pg-103, Homoeopathy The Science of Therapeutics by Carroll Dunham
Q.5. According to Stuart Close which is a recovery (Bihar AYUSH Homoeo/MO/QP/2014)?
(a) Treatment which is not directly and specifically curative in nature.
(b) Administration of suitable antipsoric medicine
(c) Administration of single high potency medicine (d) Administration of single low potency drug. Answer: (a)
Note The most suitable choice among the above given variables is (a) ‘Treatment which is not directly and specifically curative in nature’.
Stem: Definition of Recovery
Recovery is the spontaneous return of the patient to health after the removal, disappearance or cessation of the exciting causes and occasion of disease, or as a result of treatment which is not directly and specifically curative in its nature. Ref: Pg-97, The Genius of Homeopathy Lectures and Essays on Homeopathic Philosophy by Dr Stuart M. Close-Chapter IX – Cure and Recovery
Commentary: Distinction between Cure and Recovery: The favorable outcome of medical treatment may be either a cure or a recovery. To realize the ideal of cure, it is necessary to know the exact meaning of these terms and to be able to discriminate between them. Failure to discriminate between cure and recovery engenders confusion of the thought and leads to pernicious practices. The terms are not synonymous. Natural recoveries following treatment consisting of mere palliation of symptoms should not be mistaken for a cure nor falsely paraded as such. In either case, a false standard is set up, injustice is done to the ideal of cure and scientific progress is retarded. Ref: The Genius of Homeopathy Lectures and Essays on Homeopathic Philosophy by Dr Stuart M. CloseChapter IX – Cure and Recovery
Q.6. Totality of symptoms comprises of (Bihar/AYUSH/MO/QP/2014):
(a) Sum total of all symptoms
(b) Symptoms which indicate individualization
(c) Sum total of subjective symptoms
(d) Sum total of objective symptoms
Note Out of the above-given variables (b) Symptoms which indicate individualization – comprises of Totality of symptoms.
Stem: Totality of symptoms
The physician must take into consideration the age of the patient, his mode of living, his diet and regimen, his occupation, his habits and social relations. The knowledge regarding these throws useful light on the picture of the disease and obstacles, if any, to the cure. Similarly, the state of mind and its disposition must be ascertained as they guide the selection of most appropriate medicine in his case. After taking into consideration all the above directions the case-taking is completed and picture of disease is ascertained as completely as possible. On the basis of totality of symptoms; comprising especially of striking, peculiar and characteristic symptoms the physician should select the most appropriate medicine similar in its manifestations to the totality of symptoms ascertained. Ref: Pg-9, Organon of Medicine at a Glance-Part –II by A.C. Gupta.
Review of Variables
(a) Sum total of all symptoms: -N/A
(b) Symptoms which indicate individualization: “Totality of symptoms does not mean a haphazard conglomeration of all the symptoms of a patient or a drug; it really means a combination of certain group of symptoms in definite settings with a definite background and certain individualizing characteristics set appropriately on the symptom-complex so that it can point to the drug having similar peculiar symptom complex”. Ref: Dr J. N. Kangilal
Totality of the symptoms means all the symptoms of the case which are capable of being logically combined into a harmonious and consistent whole, having form, coherency and individuality. Ref: Stuart Close
Dr Boenninghausen perceived the true image of sickness in symptoms comprising the Totality of Characteristic Symptoms. Ref: Pg-238-Principles of Prescribing by K.N. Mathur
Kent perceived the true image of sickness in the symptoms characterizing the sick individual. Ref: Pg-238-Principles of Prescribing by K.N. Mathur
But this totality must be obtained, for there is no other means of ascertaining the nature of the remedy that he is in need of, as it is expressed in the eighteenth paragraph: From this indubitable truth, that, besides the totality of the symptoms, nothing can by any means be discovered in diseases wherewith they could express their need of aid, it follows undeniably that the sum of all the symptoms in each individual case of disease must be the sole indication, the sole guide to direct us in the choice of a remedy. But it is not enough to consider the totality as a grand whole; besides considering all the symptoms collectively each individual symptom must be considered. Every symptom must be examined to see what relation it sustains to and what position it fills in that totality in order that we may know its value, whether it is a common symptom, or whether a peculiarly characteristic symptom. Ref: Lectures on Homoeopathic Philosophy by J. T. Kent, Lecture 12: The removal of the totality of symptoms means the removal of the cause.
(c) Sum total of Subjective symptoms: -NA
(d) Sum total of Objective symptoms: –NA
Q.7. Who gave the statement-“What is powerful for good can be potent for evil”? (NHMC/MD/ Ent/2014):
(a) Dr Boyd
(b) Dr Hahnemann
Note The most suitable choice among above the given variables suggested is (a) Dr Boyd.
In such allergic persons, the crude drugs may produce strong reactions and even death. Iatric diseases are becoming more and more common these days due to faulty selection of drugs given in crude form in highly sensitive and susceptible patients. Dr Boyd the renowned pathologist of our times has aptly said: “What is powerful for good can be potent for evil”. Whereas Dr Hahnemann has shown abundantly that even the most powerful poison when given in potentised form according to the principles of Homoeopathy, stimulates our vital dynamis and brings about cure in even dangerously ill patients. For example, I have found Naja, the cobra venom very effective in cardiac asthma when given according to Homoeopathic indications. Ref: Pg-xii-Forward by Dr K.N. Mathur, Organon of Medicine Fifth and Sixth Ed Combine –B.Jain Publisher.
Q.8. Who gave the statement, “Man is more susceptible to drug than to disease because their action may be forced upon the economy”? (NHMC/MD/Ent/2014):
(a) H. A. Roberts
(b) S. Close
(c) J. T. Kent
Answer: Use your discretion
Note DU Answer Key suggests – (a) H.A. Roberts
Review of Variables
(a) H. A. Roberts: Neither does the fact that the obtuse prover does not respond to develop a proving of the remedy influence the value of the drug in its application to the sick, for when the vital energy is in a state of equilibrium. Ref: Principles & Art of cure by Homoeopathy by Roberts.
(b) S. Close: ‘It is a well known fact that the living organism is much more susceptible to homogeneous or similar stimuli than to heterogeneous or dissimilar stimuli’.
Or The sick organism being so much more susceptible to the similar medicine than the well organism, it follows that the size or quantity of the dose depends also upon the degree of susceptibility of the patient. Ref: Genius of Homoeopathy-Close
(c) J. T. Kent: -No Direct Reference could be foundRef: Kent Lesser writings – NAMan has all the degrees of potentization, and by these he can make changes and thereby fit the medicine to the varying susceptibility of man in varying qualities or degrees.
Hence Hahnemann writes: ‘Medicines (Particularly as it depends on us to vary doses according to our will) appear to have greater power in affecting the state of health than the natural morbific irritation, for natural diseases cured and subdued by appropriate medicines’. Ref: Lectures on Homoeopathic Philosophy-Lecture 14: Susceptibility by J.T. Kent
Kent’s Aphorisms and Precepts from extemporaneous lectures
17. Man is more susceptible to drugs than to a disease, because their action may be forced upon the economy. In disease the highest degree of susceptibility must be present. Ref: Pg-156, Homoeopath Philosophy by Raju Subramanian
(d) Hahnemann: Hahnemann states that we have more power over human beings with drugs than disease cause, for man is only susceptible to natural diseases upon a certain plane. Ref: Lectures on Homoeopathic Philosophy-Lecture 14: Susceptibility by J.T. Kent
Aph. 30: The human body appears to admit of being much more powerfully affected in its health by medicines (partly because we have the regulation of the dose in our own power) than by natural morbid stimuli, for natural diseases are cured and overcome by suitable medicines. Ref: Pg-128, Organon of Medicine by S.K. Sarkar
Q.8. The reference of accessory miasm is given in which of the following Aph. (NHMC/MD/Ent/2014):
(a) Aph. 26
(b) Aph. 16
(c) Aph. 46
(d) Aph. 73
Note Out of the variables given above the choice suggested is (c) Aph. 46
….The inoculated cow-pox, whose lymph, besides the protective matter, contains the contagion of a general cutaneous eruption of another nature, consisting of usually small, dry (rarely large, pustular) pimples, resting on a small red areola, frequently conjoined with round red cutaneous spots and often accompanied by the most violent itching, which rash appears in not a few children several days before, more frequently, however, after the red areola of the cow-pox, and goes off in a few days, leaving behind small, red, hard spots on the skin;-the inoculated cow-pox, I say, after it has taken cures perfectly and permanently, in a homoeopathic manner, by the similarity of this accessory miasm, analogous cutaneous eruptions of children, often of very long standing and of a very troublesome character, as a number of observers assert……. Ref: Pg-140, 141, Aph. 46, Organon of Medicine by S.K. Sarkar
Review of Variables
(a) Aph. 26: This depends on the following homoeopathic law of nature which was sometimes, indeed vaguely surmised but not hitherto fully recognised, and to which is due every real cure that has ever taken place: A weaker dynamic affection is permanently extinguished in the living organism a stronger one, if the latter (whilst differing in kind) is very similar to the former in its manifestations. Ref: Pg-126, Aph. 26, Organon of Medicine by S.K. Sarkar Brief: A weaker dynamic affliction is extinguished by a stronger IF it is similar in nature. Ref: Outline Organon by Julian
(b) Aph.16: Brief: Since diseases are, therefore, spirit-like, you need spirit-like medicines to be effective against them. Ref: Outline Organon by Julian
(c) Aph. 46: See as above:….similarity of this accessory miasm, analogous cutaneous eruptions……. Ref: Pg-140, 141, Aph. 46, Organon of Medicine by S.K. Sarkar
(d) Aph. 73: Brief: Discussion of acute disease Ref: Outline Organon by Julian
Q.9. Who said that the symptoms coming last in proving are of greater value (NHMC/MD/Ent/2014):
Note The choice suggested out of above variables is (c) Hering.
Stem: Under duration of Action of Remedies
According to Hering – ‘The symptoms which appear last in proving are of the greater value’.-Confirmed by Boenninghausen. Ref: Pg-185, Boenninghausen’s Characteristic Materia Medica & Repertory with word Index by C.M. Boger
Q.10. Who wrote the introduction to translation of Boericke’s 6th edition of Organon: (NHMC/MD/ Ent/2014):
(a) G. Boericke
(b) James Krauss
(d) R. Haehl
Note The choice suggested out of the above-given variables is (b) James Krauss.
James Krauss M. D. (Boston, September 30, 1921) wrote the introduction to translation of Boericke’s 6th edition of Organon. (Boericke’s translation of the sixth edition of Hahnemann’s “Organon.”) Ref: Organon of Medicine 6th Ed
Q.1. Artificial Chronic Disease are (Bihar AYUSH Homoeo/MO/QP/2014):