Dr Skandhan.S. Kumar (Md-Hom-Organon Of Medicine And Philosophy) – Assistant Professor, Under Guidance Of Dr Shivaprasad K. Hod, Professor, Department Of Organon Of Medicine, Father Muller Homoeopathic Medical College And Hospital- Deralakatte Mangaluru
BACKGROUND: This article tells us about role of Susceptibility in homoeopathy, Definition of susceptibility, Types of susceptibility and its detailed explanation along with General features of each susceptibilities which tell us the important role of considering susceptibility during Homoeopathic case taking and further evaluation of the case it also enhances the confidence of the physician as susceptibility plays a vital role in helping the disturbed vital force to get back to its true unmodified state.
METHODS: Various old literature and previous journals about susceptibilities and its philosophical background in relevance to Homoeopathy is reviewed and thus the importance of susceptibility in Homoeopathic case taking and prescription is made easy to understand.
CONCLUSION: Helps the young Homoeopathic physician to know the importance of susceptibility in his daily practice and thus helps to provide the patient with holistic care which helps the dynamic spiritual Vital Force to be in equilibrium.
KEYWORDS: Susceptibility, Potency selection, Homeopathy, Health, Disease
As we all know that susceptibility primarily as the reaction of the organism to external and internal influences and at the same time, we are also aware that small doses and homœopathy are commonly regarded as synonymous terms. The three essential elements of the system are the principle, the remedy and the dose and which are equally important to make these points essential above all evaluation of susceptibility of an individual is the must.
The selection of the remedy dose is as much an important part of the process of making a homœopathic prescription as the selection of the remedy based on susceptibility, and often quite as important. A well-selected remedy even with susceptibility background may fail utterly, or even harm, because of the wrong dosage. Dose, as well as remedy, must be adjusted to the patient’s need as they go hand in hand and plays a vital role in prescription. By susceptibility we mean the general quality or capability of the living organism of receiving impressions, the power to react to stimuli.1
This is generally and rightly regarded as the most important light in the selection of the dose. It is an inherent capacity in all living things to react to stimuli in the environment and represent a fundamental quality that distinguishes the living from the non-living and as we all know that susceptibility varies in different individuals according to age of individual, temperament of person, constitution, habits, character of diseases and environment surrounding the individual.
The susceptibility of a person to a remedy at, different times also varies at times. Idiosyncrasy may exist as a modifying factor. Homoeopathic in it must always be considered. The more similar the remedy, the more clearly and positively the symptoms of the patient take on the peculiar and characteristic form of the remedy, the greater the susceptibility to that remedy, and the higher the-potency required so basically it is the morbid susceptibility which constitutes disease1.
ROLE OF SUSCEPTIBILITY:
Susceptibility is actually known to all of us through the reactions that occur between the host and the environmental factors. Signs and symptoms represent the only perceptible type form of proof that signifies to us to the reaction that takes place within the organism. Susceptibility is actually an indirect inference.it basically, Maintains health, Evolution of constitution, Development of diathesis, Development of disease, Manifestation of disease, Process of recovery and cure, Evolution of drug picture, Remedy relationship, Determination of dose and repetition thus the causes of disease, predisposing and exciting, are to be taken into account, not merely that they may be removed where possible, but as guides to the selection of the remedy2.
SUSCEPTIBILITY IN HEALTH:
Normal susceptibility taps a predetermined response. In usual susceptibility homoeostasis of an individual is maintained and hence response is predictable. Cell, which is the unit of life exhibits this predetermined response to any type of cause. Process of anabolism and catabolism are well regulated by the homoeostatic controlling system which is the neuroendocrine system. Thus, susceptibility is reflected through all our normal physiological and healing mechanism thus h a Roberts says that everything that has life is more or less influenced by circumstances and environment3.
SUSCEPTIBILITY AND DISEASE:
The disease is a failure of vital force in the adaptation of the organism to the environmental condition. As long as the organism is able to maintain its capacity to adapt to different environmental condition individual thus remains in the state of health even when he is facing difficult conditions during which he maintains good health. Once the adaptation mechanism fails this leads to disturbed equilibrium and it is made known to the person through the feeling of lack of wellbeing. Even at this point if a warning sign is not traced and tracked and the stress continues to be present it further leads to the failure of vital force and its adaptation3.
Disease travels from spiritual plane to functional plane to structural reversible and irreversible zone. At each phase, susceptibility express itself through individualizing characteristics, which are seen at the local tissue level in pace, nature of pathology, individual sensitivities of nerves and mind during disease phase. An intelligent physician takes note of these individualizing characteristics to prescribe similimum.
Between the two susceptibilities is responsible for the major, gross responses; the fine ones are an expression of the sensitivity. The characteristics are often determined by the sensitivity; the onward march of disease in terms of its direction and effects often is a reflection of the susceptibility, a low susceptibility promoting silent marches while a morbid one giving rise to dubious expressions and jumps4.
Disease: an expression of disturbed susceptibility of suffering vital force. Disease represents a new equilibrium adopted by the vital force in order to assist it to get out of trouble. It, therefore, represents not only trouble but also the method adopted by the body to escape or get out of trouble.
Susceptibility: A total study on the pattern of the chief complaints / associated complaints, in conjunction with the examination findings and lab investigation and comparing it with the known presentation of the clinical state understudy from standard textbooks showed allow us to define the state of susceptibility4.
TYPES OF SUSCEPTIBILITY AND ITS APPROACH:
High susceptibility: is defined as the capacity of the individual to show a good number of characteristics and to limit the extent of changes at the level of tissues to a functional zone. Such an individual requires high potency with infrequent repetition.
Moderate susceptibility: throws up moderate number of characteristics and the changes at the tissue level may not be limited to the functional zone but the positive point of it is, yet it does show the capacity to prevent irreversible structural changes. Such individuals require medium potency in infrequent repetition.
Low susceptibility: exhibits a poor capacity to throw up characteristics and is generally unable to prevent structural changes at the tissue level. Such individuals require low potency in frequent repetition5.
Functional Changes: The quality and quantity of functional V/s structural components in the changes in the disease process must be studied. Diseases with predominant functional changes would favour high or medium potency in infrequent repetition.
Structural Changes: Disease with predominantly reversible structural changes will require medium or low potency with frequent repetition. Diseases with irreversible structural changes would favour low potency in frequent repetition. Here a remedy, which is being used as a palliative remedy, should be given in infrequent repetition6.
Fundamental Miasm: This is determined by the family history and past illnesses of the patient. It gives an idea of the soil of the patient and indicates the direction in which illness of the patient would proceed basically tells us about the root cause of the suffering.
Dominant Miasm: This is determined by the miasmatic expression’s dominant in the presenting complaints. Diseases with diminished vital action require the lower potencies; while diseases with increased vital action respond better to high potencies;
In terminal conditions, therefore, when the patient does not react to well-selected remedies, nor to intercurrent reaction remedies given in potentiated form and small doses, resort to the crude drug and increase the dose to the point of reaction thus Kent says that susceptibility ceases when changes occur in the economy that bar out any more influx5.
CHOOSING THE POTENCY WITH BACKGROUND OF SUSCEPTIBILITY:
Now is there any teaching which will help us to choose the best potency for a given case? There is little teaching but many opinions. Practitioners who publicly boast of their liberality on this subject6.
Five considerations influence us in the choice of the dose:
1.The susceptibility of the patient.
- The seat of the disease.
- The nature and intensity of the disease.
- The stage and duration of the disease.
- The previous treatment of the disease.
As we all know that a true totality will be based on the background of the susceptibility of an individual thus and as per Kent the removal of the totality of symptoms means the removal of the cause5 .So it is our sole duty that we should always include susceptibility in our totality analyse it thoroughly and then come to the final prescription.
- Close S. The Genius of Homoeopathy. New Delhi, India: Indian Books & Periodicals Publishers; reprint 2010. 2, 76-86, p.
- Hughes R. Principles and Practice of Homoeopathy New Delhi, India: Indian Books Publishers; reprint 2009. 1, 21-36p
- Roberts H.A. The Principles and Art of Cure by Homoeopathy. New Delhi, India: Indian Books & Periodicals Publishers; reprint 2010 May. 162-8 p.
- Sarkar B.K. Hahnemann’s Organon of Medicine. 6th edn. Kolkata: M. Bhattacharya & Co. Private Ltd; 1980. 89-90, 298 p.
- Kent J.T, Lectures on homoeopathic philosophy. New Delhi: B Jain publishers;1999. Chapter XIV, Susceptibility p.106-109.
- Dhawale M.L. ICR Symposium Volume of Hahnemann Totality. 2nd edn. Mumbai, India: Institute of Clinical Research; 2000. Part II Area C; p C31.