Research and Homoeopathy - homeopathy360
The Homoeopathic Heritage

Research and Homoeopathy

research and homeopathyAbstract:  The high quality of medical care we enjoy today is built upon years of effort by medical personalities. Homoeopathy is a controversial topic in complementary medicine research.

 

Objective: To highlight the present status of research in homoeopathy. However, there is still much work to be done.

 

Swami Vivekananda once quoted on Homoeopathy: “It is not merely a collection of few medicines but a new Science with a rational philosophy as its base. We require more scientific interest and inquiry into the matter with special stress upon the Indian environments”.

 

Introduction

 

Research is a careful and detailed study into a specific problem, concern, or issue using the scientific method. Biomedical research (or experimental medicine) is in general simply known as medical research. It is the basic research, applied research, or translational research conducted to aid and support the development of knowledge in the field of medicine.[1]

 

Controversy around Homoeopathic Research

 

Several of the presentations made at the FDA hearing (April 20-21, 2015) asserted that there is “no evidence” that homoeopathic medicines are effective for any condition. The information provided below will show this statement is not true. Studies demonstrating the effectiveness of homoeopathic medicines have been published in leading medical journals, including the Lancet, BMJ,Chest (the publication of the American College of Chest Physicians),Rheumatology (the publication of the British Society for Rheumatology),Pediatrics (publication of the American Academy of Pediatrics), Cancer(journal of the American Cancer Society), Pediatrics Infectious Disease Journal (publication of the European Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases),European Journal of Pediatrics (publication of the Swiss Society of Pediatrics and the Belgium Society of Pediatrics), and numerous others. Some researchers have chosen to create arbitrary guidelines that claim that no study is “reliable” unless it has greater than 150 subjects, No peer-review journal and independent research organization has ever claimed that these guidelines for determining “reliability” on research are valid or even reasonable. [2]

 

Why research is important?

 

  • There is little evidence to support homoeopathy as an effective treatment for any specific condition.
  • Although people sometimes assume that all homoeopathic remedies are highly diluted and therefore unlikely to cause harm, some products labeled as homoeopathic can contain substantial amounts of active ingredients and therefore could cause side effects and drug interactions.
  • Homoeopathic remedies are regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, FDA does not evaluate the remedies for safety or effectiveness.
  • Several key concepts of homoeopathy are inconsistent with fundamental concepts of chemistry and physics. There are significant challenges in carrying out rigorous clinical research on homoeopathic remedies.
  • A 2015 comprehensive assessment of evidence by the Australian government’s National Health and Medical Research Council concluded that there are no health conditions for which there is reliable evidence that homoeopathy is effective.
  • Homoeopathy is a controversial topic in complementary medicine research. For example, it is not possible to explain in scientific terms how a remedy containing little or no active ingredient can have any effect. This, in turn, creates major challenges to rigorous clinical investigation of homoeopathic remedies. For example, one cannot confirm that an extremely dilute remedy contains what is listed on the label, or develop objective measures that show effects of extremely dilute remedies in the human body.
  • Another research challenge is that homoeopathic treatments are highly individualized, and there is no uniform prescribing standard for homoeopathic practitioners. There are hundreds of different homoeopathic remedies, which can be prescribed in a variety of different dilutions for thousands of symptoms.

 

Basic Classification of Homoeopathic Research

 

  1. Clinical trial and research
  • with individualised medicine
  • without individualised medicine

 

  1. Basic research or laboratory oriented research
  • in vivo
  • in vitro

 

 

Clinical Trial and Clinical Research

To best understand the remaining part of this idea, some definitions are helpful:

  • Single blind trial refers to experiments in which the subjects do not know whether a specific treatment was prescribe or a placebo.
  • Double-blind trials refer to experiments in which neither the experimenter nor the subjects know whether a specific treatment was prescribe or a placebo.
  • Randomized trials are those in which subjects of an experiment are randomly placed either in treatment groups or in placebo groups. The researchers attempt to place people with similar characteristics in equal numbers in treatment and placebo groups.
  • Crossover studies refer to experiments in which half of the subjects of a study are given a placebo during one phase of a study and then given the active treatment during the second phase, while the other half begin with the active treatment and then receive the placebo during the second phase. Crossover studies sometimes do not test a placebo and instead compare one type of treatment with another type of treatment.

 
 

Clinical research is research that directly involves a particular person or group of people or that uses materials from humans, such as their behaviour or samples of their tissue. A clinical trial is one type of clinical research that follows a pre-defined plan or protocol. By taking part in clinical trials, participants can not only play a more active role in their own health care, but they can also access new treatments and help others by contributing to medical research.

 

People are often confused by research, not only because it can be overly technical but because some studies show that a therapy works and other studies shows that it doesn’t. To solve this problem, a recent development in research is used, called a “meta-analysis,” which is a systematic review of a body of research that evaluates the overall results of experiments.

 

In 1991, three professors of medicine from the Netherlands, none of them homeopaths, performed a meta-analysis of 25 years of clinical studies using homeopathic medicines and published their results in the British Medical Journal.[3] This meta-analysis covered 107 controlled trials, of which 81 showed that homeopathic medicines were effective, 24 showed they were ineffective, and 2 were inconclusive.

 

There are different types of homeopathic clinical research, some of which provide individualization of remedies; which is the hallmark of the homeopathic methodology; some of which give a commonly prescribed remedy to all people with a similar ailment.

 

Clinical Research with Individualized Care

 

Some people incorrectly assume that research using homeopathic medicines is impossibly complicated because each medicine must be individualized to the patient. The following studies disprove this simplistic belief.

1) A study, published in the American journal Paediatrics, tested homeopathic medicine for the treatment of a condition recognized to be the most serious public health problem today, childhood diarrhoea. [4] Conventional physicians prescribe oral rehydration therapy (ORT, a salt solution that helps children maintain fluid balance), but this treatment does not fight the infection that underlies the diarrhoea.A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 81 children showed that an individually chosen remedy provided statistically significant improvement of the children’s diarrhea as compared to those given a placebo. Children given the homeopathic remedy were cured of their infection 20% faster than those given a placebo, and the sick children responded most dramatically to the homeopathic treatment. A total of 18 different remedies were used in this trial, individually chosen based on each child’s symptoms.

 

2) A study of the homeopathic treatment of migraine headache was conducted in Italy. [5] Sixty patients were randomized and entered into a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Patients regularly filled out a questionnaire on the frequency, intensity, and characteristics of their head pain. They were prescribed a single dose of a 30c remedy at four separate times over two-week intervals. Eight remedies were considered, and prescribers were allowed to use any two with a patient. While only 17% of patients given a placebo experienced relief of their migraine pain, an impressive 93% of patients given an individualized homeopathic medicine experienced good results.

 

3) A study Clinical evaluation of homoeopathic therapy in the management of hyperlipoproteinemia was done under CCRH.[6] aimed at evolving a group of useful homoeopathic medicines in the treatment of hyperlipoproteinemia. A prospective observational study was carried out during the period 1992-2003. Three hundred and twenty two patients with hyperlipoproteinemia and various clinical presentations were studied.. Homoeopathic medicines were prescribed in different potencies (Q to 10M), basing on the presenting complaints, mental and physical attributes of the patients. The result was two hundred ninety three (293) patients were followed up regularly and varying degrees of improvement were observed, viz. marked improvement in 77 patients, moderate improvement in 113 patients, mild improvement in 100 patients and no improvement in 03 patients. Results obtained from the study are encouraging with findings that 26% of the patients improved markedly with an evidence of changes in laboratory parameters.

 
 

Clinical Research with Non-individualized Care

In addition to the studies on homoeopathy in which individualized remedies are prescribed, there is also a body of research testing single remedies to people given in a non-individualized manner. Such research is potentially problematic because homoeopaths acknowledge that the remedies require some degree of individualization to be effective.

 

1) One study using non individualized homeopathic treatment was sponsored by the British Government during World War II and was conducted in 1941-42 on volunteers whose skin was burned with mustard gas.[7] The study showed the efficacy of Mustard gas 30c as a preventive or Rhus tox 30c and Kali bichromicum 30c as therapy. The study was double blind, placebo-controlled, and was conducted at two centres (London and Glasgow), both showing similarly positive results.[8]

 

2) Oscillococcinum is also popular in the U.S. and is effective primarily at the first signs of influenza. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study with 478 patients suffering from influenza was conducted, making this the largest trial yet performed testing a homeopathic medicine. This trial showed that almost twice as many people who took the homeopathic remedy got over the flu after 48 hours as compared to those given a placebo.[9]

 

3) Another recent study Clinical trial for evaluation of a Human Immunodeficiency Virus nosode in the treatment for Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected individuals . The investigator has developed new Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) nosode and evaluated its effect on HIV positive individuals through a clinical trial. Thirty-seven HIV-infected persons were registered for the trial, and ten participants were dropped out from the study, so the effect of HIV nosode 30C and 50C, was concluded on 27 participants under the trial. The study results revealed improvement in immunological parameters, treatment satisfaction, reported by an increase in weight, relief in symptoms, and an improvement in health status, which opens up possibilities for future studies. [10]

 

In the support of clinical trial HRI is supporting the following projects looking at areas where Homoeopathy could be of particular value. They are ADHD, Depression, IBS, fracture healing.

 

Basic Research

They are mainly two variety in vivo (i.e human experimentation and on lower animals,) and in vitro (in cultured media).

 

In vivo study

 

In vivo (Latin for “within the living”; often not italicized in English) are those in which the effects of various biological entities are tested on whole, living organisms usually animals including humans, and plants as opposed to a partial or dead organism

It may be further classified under two sub divisions

 

(i) Drug proving

Drug Proving now termed as Homoeopathic Pathogenetic Trials (HPT) is a process in which drug substances are put into trial over healthy human volunteers and their pathogenetic effects are observed, noted and compiled as the first step to introduce the drug in the Materia Medica. Proving of a drug substance is a unique process in

 

Homoeopathy. Unlike conventional medicine where animal experimentation forms the basis of evaluation of drug pathogenesis, homoeopathic medicines are proved on healthy human volunteers, including controls, from both sexes. The Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy since its inception in 1974, has adopted the Drug Proving Program as one of its primary research areas. The Council has focused on proving of indigenous drugs and also fragmentarily proved drugs. It is a double-blind, randomized, multicentric study and is being conducted at various centers . The various new drugs are being added in our materia medica .

 

(ii) On lower animals / Animal experiments

 

Animal testing, also known as animal experimentation, animal research, and in vivo testing, is the use of non-human animals in experiments.. It includes pure research (such as genetics, developmental biology, and behavioural studies) as well as applied research (such as biomedical research, xenotransplantation, drug testing, and toxicology tests, including cosmetics testing). [11]

 

Lower animal are used in homoeopathy for testing the efficacy of a drug as well gain the safety measure before applying a new medicine. It is always advocated before every clinical trial of a new drug whether homoeopathic or non homoeopathic. Regarding homoeopathic drugs, these experiments should be conducted especially with the mother tinctures which are used in the crude forms to judge their complete safety & long term usage. Also there is much scope regarding the testing of homoeopathic potencies upon animals so as to obtain scientific acceptance & proofs as regard to their efficacy in the treatment of diseases.

 

List of animal used for experimentation[12]

(1) THE RAT (Rattus norvegicus)

(2) THE MOUSE (Mus musculus)

(3) THE GUINEA PIG (Cavia porcellus)

(4) THE RABBIT (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

(5) THE HAMSTER (Mesocricetus auratus)

(6) THE CAT (Felis domesticus)

(7) THE DOG (Canis lupus familiaris)

(8) THE FROG & THE TOAD (Rana temporaria).

 

In vitro study

In vitro (Latin for “within the glass”) refers to the technique of performing a given procedure in a controlled environment outside of a living organism. In vitro pharmacokinetic models of infection can make an important contribution to the study of the pharmacodynamic properties of an antibacterial agent. In conjunction with animal and human pharmacodynamic evaluations, they provide data to allow for the optimization of drug dosing regimens. In vitro models can be used simply to describe the effect of a drug on a bacterial population as well as to provide data for more-analytical studies, including hypothesis testing drawn.

 

The examples of in vitro studies are jotted below:

  1. Ruta 6 selectively induces cell death in brain cancer cells but proliferation in normal peripheral blood lymphocytes: A novel treatment for human brain cancer done by SEN PATHAK, ASHA S. MULTANI, PRATIP BANERJI and PRASANTA BANERJI. [13]

 

Although conventional chemotherapies are used to treat patients with malignancies, damage to normal cells is problematic. Blood-forming bone marrow cells are the most adversely affected. It is therefore necessary to find alternative agents that can kill cancer cells but have minimal effects on normal cells. They investigated the brain cancer cell-killing activity of a homeopathic medicine, Ruta, isolated from a plant, Ruta graveolens. Here they treated human brain cancer and HL-60 leukemia cells, normal B-lymphoid cells, and murine melanoma cells in vitro with different concentrations of Ruta in combination with Ca3(PO4)2. Fifteen patients diagnosed with intracranial tumors were treated with Ruta 6 and Ca3(PO4)2. Of these 15 patients, 6 of the 7 glioma patients showed complete regression of tumors. Normal human blood lymphocytes, B-lymphoid cells, and brain cancer cells treated with Ruta in vitro were examined for telomere dynamics, mitotic catastrophe, and apoptosis to understand the possible mechanism of cell-killing, using conventional and molecular cytogenetic techniques. Both in vivo and in vitro results showed induction of survival-signaling pathways in normal lymphocytes and induction of death-signaling pathways in brain cancer cells. Cancer cell death was initiated by telomere erosion and completed through mitotic catastrophe events. We propose that Ruta in combination with Ca3(PO4)2 could be used for effective treatment of brain cancers, particularly glioma.

 

  1. In Vitro Studies Demonstrate Anticancer Activity of an Alkaloid of the Plant Gelsemium sempervirens studied By Soumyasundar Bhattacharyya, Sushil Kumar Mandal, Raktim Biswas, Saili Paul, Surajit Pathakand Anisur Khuda Baksh, published by experimental biology and medicine.[14]

 

The chemical structure of the main fluorescenting compound in the ethanolic extract (mother tincture) of the American yellow jasmine, Gelsemium, was determined by employing (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), (13)C NMR, mass spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), correlation spectroscopy (COSY), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analyses. Spectrofluorometric analysis has been made of the mother tincture and its agitated serial dilutions (up to 12th potency) prepared according to a homeopathic procedure in which serial, agitated dilutions were made separately in glass and polypropylene containers. The succussions were made by employing three different modes: hand jerk, sonication, and vortexing. The chemical formula of scopoletin, the main fluorescent compound, was determined to be C(10)H(8)O(4) having a molecular weight of 192.17. Significant differences were noted between the remedies prepared in the two types of containers. Further, a comparison between any two methods of agitation revealed significant differences in fluorometric data of remedies at certain potency levels. The biological (anticancer) action of the crude extract, the alkaloid scopoletin, and 2C potency of Gelsemium sp were tested in vitro on the HeLa cell line through fluorescence microscopy, the 3(4, 5- dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and fluorescent activated cell sorting (FACS). The role of nanoparticles presumably derived from the containers, their orientation, and their interaction with the starting substance during the dynamization process initiated by different modes of agitation could possibly be attributed to the differences noted in the fluorometric data of potencies prepared in the two types of containers and among the three different means of succussion tested. Encapsulated plant extract (Gelsemium sempervirens) poly (lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles enhance cellular uptake and increase bioactivity in vitro.

 

  1. Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogenic fungus accounting for up to 75% of all candidal infections in human beings. Generally Candida grow and survive as commensals but slight modification of the host defense system can transform Candida albicans into a pathogen.

 

Samples collected from the oral cavity and tongue of the patients suspected of suffering from oral candidiasis were incubated for growth of Candida.

 

Fermentation and assimilation test confirmed the species as Candida albicans. Disc method was used to assess the in-vitro anti-candidal effect of few homoeopathic drugs in 30 and 200 potencies against human pathogenic Candida albicans under in-vitro conditions and compared with standard antifungal drug ketoconazole (control), rectified spirit (control/vehicle) and distilled water (vehicle) by “inhibition zone technique”.

 

Results: Homeopathic drugs namely Acid benzoicum, Apis mellifica, Kali iodatum, Mezereum, Petroleum, Sulphur, Tellurium, Sulphur iodatum, Graphites, Sepia, Silicea and Thuja occidentalis in 30 and 200 potencies were tested against Candida albicans. Mezereum in 200 and 30 potency showed maximum inhibition of growth of Candida albicans followed by Kali iodatum 200 while Kali iodatum 30 and Petroleum 30 had minimum inhibition.

 

Conclusion: The results of these experiments support the concept of “evidence based medicine” depicting that homoeopathic medicines not only work in in-vivo but are equally effective in in-vitro conditions having definite inhibitory activity against Candida albicans.[15]

 

How the homoeopathic medicines act?? Evidential explanation.

“An understanding of, and explanation for, the action of homeopathic medicines would not only revolutionise the status of homoeopathy in the world but also profoundly improve prescribing methods and our ability to treat illness.” Dr Steven Cartwright PhD

 

Physicochemical changes

 

(1) In lower dilutions

The different part of plants contains a vast treasure of active principles or phytochemicals which are actually responsible for the therapeutic effect shown by them and their active principle can be detected in the laboratory by performing certain analytical test and procedure. Ex- Study of Natrum muriaticum 6C by Dr. E.S Rajendranan showed the particle size of nat mur 6c were small and majority of particles were within QD(Quantum dots) range. The study has been done under TEM( Transmission Electron Microscope).[16]

 

(2)Higher dilutions

When the homoeopathic medicines are potentised beyond avagadro’s number. This insitigated a number of controversy. A proper positive explaination are evidence based.

(1) A project was done by Dr Steven Cartwright who gained his PhD in molecular biology fromEdinburgh University. He is currently heading a laboratory based research project at the Cherwell Innovation Centre outside Oxford investigating the physio-chemical properties of homeopathic medicines using a class of sensitive ionic dyes as molecular probes of diluted and succussed solutions. This project aims to observe potential physico-chemical differences between succussed solutions and unsuccussed solutions using particular types of highly sensitive coloured andfluorescent dyes (chromophoric probes). Investigations are being carried out using UV/VIS and fluorescence spectrometers to analyse changes in the spectra of the chromophoric probes as a function of succussion, nature of the substance diluted and specific environmental factors. Results to date indicate that adding a drop of a liquid homoeopathic medicine (or ‘potency’), induces greater ordering in solution and in particular enhance the exclusion zone known to exist adjacent to hydrophilic surfaces – a phenomenon not seen with unsuccussed liquids. These are exciting results and are generating a number of specific and fruitful lines of investigation. [17]

 

(2) Nano science and nanotechnology accept and realise that particle smaller than size of 100 nano meter possess properties entirely different from that of particle of larger size. They are capable of showing new chemical and physical properties absent in particles of bigger dimensions. Nature of Homoeopathy drugs in potencies was a major mystery and controversy in the world of medicine. The present work by DR ES Rajendran establishes that Homoeopathy drugs have unlimited source of nano particles and quantum dots derived from the original drug substance. He study was conducted with HRTEM and EDS(High resolution transmission electron microscope with energy dispersive spectroscopy) in the cases of drug potencies derived from metallic and mineral sources.

.

The study shows that – all homoeopathy medicines in various potencies from low to high – contain nano particles or quantum dots. [18]

 

Describing it as a “fascinating observation,” a recent paper by IIT Bombay researchers has been lauded in an editorial “Do serial dilutions really dilute?” of the premier journal “Homoeopathy”. The paper provides a key insight into the possible basis of Homoeopathy, a scientific explanation of which has so far eluded researchers due to its use of extreme dilution, well beyond that predicted by atomic theory, by which the presence of any active starting active ingredient is ruled out. The paper entitled ‘Extreme Homeopathic Dilutions Retain Starting Materials: A Nanoparticulate Perspective’, is authored by a team from the Chemical Engineering Department of IIT Bombay consisting of PrashantChikramane (PhD research scholar), Dr. A. K. Suresh (Professor and Dean of Faculty), Dr. S. G.Kane (Adjunct Professor and IITB alum, BTech ChE 1965 H7), and Dr. Jayesh Bellare (Professor andIITB alum, BTech ChE 1982 H3). The work was funded in part by IRCC, IIT Bombay and IITBAlumni (Sridhar Shukla B Tech EE 1983 and S. G. Kane). The group built on their expertise ofunderstanding Ayurvedic Bhasmas and the role of nanoparticles there. The paper reports thefascinating observation that certain high potency (highly diluted) homeopathic remedies made frommetals still contain measurable amounts of the starting material, even at extreme dilutions of 1 part in10 raised to 400 parts (200C). It is well known that a series of 1:99 dilutions done sequentially will produce a significant dilution of the starting material in very short order. Specifically, if the starting material is at one molar concentration (6.023x10e23 molecules per liter), then at about the 12thdilution (12C) there should be no or very nearly no molecules left of the starting material. At 200th dilution (200C) the likelihood of there being even one atom of the starting material approaches zero.

 

However, dilution does not work so simply, according to this paper. Using electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction, and atomic spectroscopy Chikramane et al. found that, contrary to the arithmetic, there are nanogram quantities of the starting material still present in these ‘high potency’ remedies in the form of nanoparticles.[19]

 

Water Research

Current research points towards the likely existence of water structures which, although being largely unexplored, in principle have the necessary characteristics to explain the mechanism of action of homeopathic medicines. The Water Research Laboratory aims to investigate these new water structures using a multidisciplinary approach involving theoretical physics, mathematical modeling and experimental exploration. In the field of the physics of high dilutions, which has immediate relevance to homoeopathy, many research groups have reported interesting findings. In particular, Prof Luc Montagnier (who won the Nobel Prize for discovering the HIV/AIDS virus), has shown homeopathic dilutions to have electromagnetic properties which differ from those of normal water. [20]

 

Conclusion

Man is the constant investigator and experimenter, his reason gifted mind always provoked him to search explanation for every statement. The constant why and how helped him to enlarge the field of science. Homoeopathy too belong to this field. Though based on fixed principle but still it creates many queries in the mind of most intelligent creature of nature.

Although our master said “it matter little what may be scientific explanation of how it take place” [21] but in today’s scenario its mandatory to collect the evidence of homoeopathic effect. Since the birth of homoeopathy till now the controversies are never ending. Starting from Hufeland’s comment, many of dignities like Prof. Ernst of Australia has raised comments like homoeopathy is dangerous and should be banned by NHS. WHO too warns against the use of homoeopathy? It is the duty of homoeopathic neonates to come forward explore the research, enlarge the science, collect the evidence and proof the world that homoeopathy is no less scientific.

 

References

  1. https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/magazine/issues/summer08/articles/summer08pg2-3.html
  2. Ullman dana, the Huffington postin association of times of India group, updated 05/01/2015.
  3. Kleijnen, P. Knipschild, G. ter Riet, “Clinical Trials of Homoeopathy,” British Medical Journal,February 9, 1991, 302:316-323.
  4. Jennifer Jacobs, L. Jimenez, Margarita, Stephen Gloyd, “Treatment of Acute Childhood Diarrhoea with Homeopathic Medicine: A Randomized Clinical Trial in Nicaragua,” Pediatrics, May 1994,93,5:719-25.
  5. Bruno Brigo, and G. Serpelloni, “Homeopathic Treatment of Migraines: A Randomized Doubleblind Controlled Study of 60 Cases,” Berlin Journal on Research in Homoeopathy, March 1991, 1,2: 98-106.
  6. JP Govekar, VK Paul, K Singh, Praveen Oberai, Varanasi Roja, ; Clinical evaluation of homoeopathic therapy in the management of hyperlipoproteinemia , Indian journal of research in homoeopathy ,Year : 2008 Volume : 2 issue : 4 Page : 34-41
  7. Paterson, “Report on Mustard Gas Experiments, Journal of the American Institute of Homoeopathy, 1944, 37:47-50, 88-92.
  8. M.M. Owen and G. Ives, “The Mustard Gas Experiments of the British Homeopathic Society: 1941-1942, Proceedings of the 35th International Homeopathic Congress, 1982, 258-59.
  9. P. Ferley, D. Zmirou, D. D’Admehar, et al., “A Controlled Evaluation of a Homoeopathic Preparation in the Treatment of Influenza-like Syndrome,” British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, March 1989, 27:329-35.
  10. Rajesh shah, Clinical trial for evaluation of a Human Immunodeficiency Virus nosode in the treatment for Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected individuals IJRH , Year : 2015 , Volume :9 , Issue : 1, Page : 25-33
  11. Ghosh,M.N., Fundamentals of experimental pharmacology, 5th ed, 2011, Hilton & compan
  12. Kulkarni S.K. – Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology; fourth edition, 2012; M K Jain for Vallabh Prakashan
  13. Ruta 6 selectively induces cell death in brain cancer cells but proliferation in normal peripheral blood lymphocytes: A novel treatment for human brain cancer Sen Pathak, Asha S. Multani, Pratip Banerji And Prasanta Banerji, International Journal Of Oncology 23: 975-982, 2003, Departments Of Cancer Biology And Laboratory Medicine, The University Of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA; PBH Research Foundation, 10/3/1 Elgin Road, Kolkata 700 020, West Bengal, India Received April 16, 2003; Accepted May 28, 2003
  14. Bhattacharyya Soumyasundar, et al;In Vitro Studies Demonstrate Anticancer Activity of an Alkaloid of the Plant Gelsemium sempervirens ; experimental biology and medicine;2008
  15. Girish Gupta, AK Srivastava, Naveen Gupta, Gaurang Gupta, Sunil Mishra, Anti-candidal activity of homoeopathic drugs: An in-vitro evaluation, ijrh, Year : 2015 , Volume : 9, Issue : 2 , Page : 79-85
  16. Rajendran, Es , nanodynamics, published by mohra publication, pg 58; year 2015
  17. Rajendran, Es, nanodynamics, published by mohra publication, year 2015.
  18. Chikramane PS, Suresh AK, Bellare JR, Kane SG (2010). Extreme homeopathic dilutions retain starting materials: a nanoparticulate perspective. Homoeopathy 2010; 99: 231‐Web:http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6WXX‐518T4YP‐3/2/6e6eb3920562d5d97e2a4671f0416546
  19. HAHNEMANN, S.; Organon of Medicine – Translated by Dudgeon R.E. ; aph 28; Reprint edition; New Delhi; B. Jain Publishers Pvt. Ltd., 1991

About the authors

Dr Ayesha Naaz is PGT, Dept of Homoeopathic Pharmacy NIH, Kolkata

Prof (Dr.) Dilip Panakkada is HOD Dept of Homoeopathic Pharmacy, NIH, Kolkata

 
 
Source: The Homoeopathic Heritage, November 2018.

Leave a Comment