Abstract: The focus here is mainly on the use of tissue salts in maintaining health. The use of the known 12 tissue salts and addition of some new found salts for various systems and tissues of the body are incorporated in this article. The reference to various authorities of these salts and their free form has helped the authors to integrate the uses of each in day to day life of the individual. This article is aimed at the reader who wishes to know the application of the salts for a healthy life.
Introduction: The Human Body is composed of Organic and inorganic constituents. It is upon the relevant quantities of these two materials that life and health depends. The cell salts constitute about 1/20th of the body composition. They are the vital portion of the body, being the workers and the builders of the body.
If we had to define health, how would we go about it? A simple way to describe it would be ‘A harmonious relation of all organs of the body’. Now let us take this matter of health a little further, a harmonious relation of each individual cell, of each cell in turn upon its components, i.e. the elements of the cell namely cell salts.
“Man is generated of earth and air. The activity of plants called him to life. The corpse is decomposed into air and ashes, and through the vegetable world it then develops new forces in new forms”
The simple logic of Schussler’s theory (proven by the Biologist Guenther Stahlkopf in 1972) is:
The human body contains twelve essential mineral (tissue) salts, a correct balance of which must be maintained in order to ensure normal cell function and the maintenance of good health. Any disruption to this balance – and we have a situation we call “illness“. A normal balance of these vital mineral salts can be re-established with the administration of the deficient mineral in a readily assimilated form, which passes rapidly into the bloodstream and therefore the cells.
Compilation from a vast source of available material has been resorted to with the authors experience in the practice of medicine.
The most important ions in the cell are potassium, magnesium, phosphate, sulphate, bicarbonate, and smaller quantities of sodium, chloride and calcium.
The inorganic constituents of various cells of the body have been well documented by Schussler as follows:
Nerve cells: M.P.; K.P.; N.M.; F.P.
Muscle cells: M.P.; K.P.; N.M.; F.P.; & K.M.
Connective tissue cells: Silica.
Bone cells: C.F. & M.P. & a large proportion of C.P.
“Being in balance” is the condition of the normal subject, hence the concentrations within the body fluids represent the balance between intake and output, both for water and the solute in question.
Role of Biochemic Tissue Salts in the human body:
Body is made up of many elements and its compound; with the progress in research and development in application of biochemistry to betterment of human health newer biochemic remedies have to be found. With the advances in biochemistry indications of biochemic salts should be updated and modified accordingly. For correct prescription of biochemic remedies it is necessary to have in depth knowledge of biochemistry. Along with biochemic remedies, it should be noted that actual deficiency of elements should be supplemented with material doses of elements & change in diet wherever necessary.

Many of the above mentioned elements are present in supplements available in market; so what is the difference?
The elements mentioned above are TRACE ELEMENTS i.e. they are available in very MINUTE QUANTITIES; so to fulfil their need they should similarly be supplied in MINUTE QUANTITIES.
When given in more quantity for long period of time it may COMPETE with other elements which have similar action.
To avoid this they should be given in minute form as given in DECIMAL SCALE whenever required.
Also we should not forget that Nature is so intelligent that it can tweak any of these trace elements or salts to produce illness and bring about cure. If we study Nature minutely we can get more salts to prescribe.
Details of the various salts:

1. Calcium:

Calcium is the most abundant cation in the human body, and very important mineral for the maintenance of neuromuscular function. (2) Calcium is present in the body mainly in the form of calcium phosphate in the bone. (1) Calcium and phosphorus are necessary for bone formation
Functions (2)
Bone formation, neuromuscular function, clotting of blood, Maintenance of capillary permeability

  1. Calcium fluoride – As a Bone salt, for teeth
  2. Calcium phosphate- Nutritional remedy for growth and development, biochemical tonic
  3. Calcium sulphate – Calcium sulphate is a form giving and form maintaining Connective tissue salt

2. Magnesium:

Magnesium is the second most abundant intracellular cation in the body. (3) Magnesium is about one sixth as plentiful in cells as potassium. Magnesium is required by the cell membrane adenosine triphosphatase, the enzyme which supplies the energy required for the sodium pump.
Magnesium is required as a catalyst for many intracellular enzymatic reactions, particularly those related to carbohydrate metabolism. (1)

  1. Magnesium Phosphoricum- Irritability of nervous system

3. Sodium:

Sodium forms the base (cation) of the extra cellular compartment (vascular and interstitial fluid.) (4) It is the predominant extra cellular cation. It is the main component of the extra cellular fluid.
Sodium is concerned in the maintenance of: (i) Fluid balance; (ii) Muscle irritability; (iii) Acid-base balance; (iv) Osmotic pressure.­(4)
It maintains the isotonicity of the body fluids.

  1. Natrum Muriaticum- Interstitial space, especially hydration balance
  2. Natrum Phosphoricum- Acts on the stomach acids
  3. Natrum Sulphuricum- Action on the Liver functions.

All the three have a profound action on the respiratory system.

4. Potassium:

It is the main component of the intra cellular fluid. It is the predominant intra cellular cation. Potassium is an important constituent of animal and vegetable cells. It is the main base of the intracellular compartment, just as sodium is of the extra cellular compartment. (5) Potassium is concerned with cellular excitability. The irritability of the nerves and skeletal and cardiac muscles is determined by potassium.

  1. Kalium muriaticum- To counter the ill effects after long continuation and over doses of medicine
  2. Kalium Phosphoricum- Brain tonic, weariness, weakness and exhaustion
  3. Kalium sulphuricum- For cleansing acts on the skin and respiratory system.

5. Iron:

Iron is a vital component of haemoglobin, which transports oxygen to various tissues of the body. Life and iron are inseparable: with the sole exception of lactic acid bacteria, all living organisms require iron as an essential element for growth and multiplication. Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional problem in the world. Free ionic iron hardly exists in the body. All the intracellular iron is either in haemoglobin or in the iron-storage protein ferritin. (6) Iron is absolutely essential for both the transport of oxygen to the tissues and the operation of oxidative systems within the tissue cells, without which life would cease within a few seconds. (1)
Ferrum Phosphoricum– Anaemia, multiple food allergies

6. Phosphorus (Phosphate):

Phosphate is widely distributed in all the cells and body fluids, and plays a vital role in enzyme reactions and tissue metabolism. The metabolism of phosphate and calcium is closely linked, and these minerals usually occur together in food. Their absorption, excretion, blood levels, and functions in bone formation are interrelated. (7) Phosphate is the major anion of intracellular fluid. Phosphates have the ability to combine reversibly with many coenzyme systems and with multiple other Compounds that is necessary for the operation of metabolic processes. (1)
Biochemic salts containing phosphate are Calcium phosphate, Ferrum phosphate, Kalium phosphate, Magnesium phosphate, Natrum phosphate
Experiences of the authors:
The various tissue salts have been used extensively by us in the past for the patients and also for the healthy growth of the individual. The tissue salts used are as follows:
Calcarea phosphoricum: It has been given for teething children as a single salt or in combination with Calcarea fluor.
Ferrum phosphoricum: It has been given for weakness, tiredness, fatigue and low haemoglobin count
Magnesium phosphoricum: It has been given for colic and cramps in the muscles and also used for dry irritative coughing bouts.
Kalium phosphoricum: It has been given for generalised weakness, neurasthenia and brain fag especially in children during the examinations.
Natrium muriaticum: It has been given in common colds with watery discharge and sneezing with an allergic background.
Natrum phosphoricum: It has been given for problems related to acidity, like burning in the upper abdomen, with nausea and sour vomiting.
Natrum sulphuricum: It has been given for headaches with bilious vomiting.
In convalescence the use of Calcarea phos along with Kali phos has proved efficacious in restoring the vitality of the patient quickly.
New salts discovered and their role:

7. Copper:

Copper is absorbed mainly in the liver, muscles and bones. Copper, as a component of a number of metallo-enzymes, is concerned with the metabolism of catecholamines and ascorbic acid. It is also involved in the formation of myelin by allowing phospholipids synthesis. Ceruloplasmin catalyzes oxidation of ferrous to ferric ions, to make available iron for the formation of red blood cells. (8)  Copper is an essential nutrient in humans and acts as a critical cofactor when incorporated into specific cupro-enzymes that catalyze electron transfer reactions required for cellular respiration, iron oxidation, pigment formation, neurotransmitter biosynthesis, antioxidant defence, peptide amidation, and connective tissue formation. The immune system requires copper to perform several functions, of which little is known about the direct mechanism of action. (11)
Copper-deficient people have osteoporosis that can be cured with extra copper.
There is no epidemiologic evidence that low copper intakes produce the osteoporosis that occurs in late middle age. However, two double-blind, placebo controlled trials have shown that trace element supplements including copper improved bone mineral density in postmenopausal women.
Salt which can be used is Copper sulphate. 

8. Fluoride:

Fluoride is present in the teeth, bones, thyroid gland, skin and blood.
Functions- (9) Fluoride is necessary in early life for the formation of caries-resistant teeth.
Its principal action on bone is to slow down resorption, with the additional function of promoting calcification. Increase in bone mass decreases the risk of fracture.
Fluorine does not seem to be a necessary element for metabolism, but the presence of a small quantity of fluorine in the body during the period of life when the teeth are being formed subsequently protects against caries. (1)

  1. Calcarea Fluoricum.
  2. Natrum Fluoride: – Bone pain is reduced, bone mineral content is increased, and the incidence of fractures is decreased. (12)

Salt which can be used is Natrum fluoride. 

9. Zinc:

Zinc is primarily an intracellular element; its content is thus proportionate to the lean body mass. Several hormones are zinc-dependent, including insulin, testosterone, the thymic hormone thymulin, Prolactin, and growth hormone.
Zinc has an important role in the development and function of the brain. It is possible that maternal zinc deficiency can cause impaired performance in school-children and in subsequent adult life. (10)  Zinc is an integral part of many enzymes, one of the most important of which is carbonic anhydrase, present in especially high concentration in the red blood cells. (1) Zinc is required for the activity of 300 enzymes, covering all six classes of enzymes. (13)
Zinc supplementation in hospitalized patients may help with normal immune response for minor infection and wound healing. Deficiency may be common in less developed countries.(14,15) The mainly cereal- and grain-based diets consumed in less developed countries contain zinc in a form (bound to phytate) that is made unavailable for absorption by the intestine. Groups that are vulnerable to zinc deficiency include growing children, pregnant and lactating women, and possibly the elderly in the advanced as well as the advancing nations.
Zinc and copper play important roles in bone metabolism and bone health in part due to the roles they play as cofactors for various enzymes required for the synthesis or modification of bone matrix constituents. Zinc is a cofactor for a myriad of enzymes in the body, including alkaline phosphatase.
Salt which can be used is Zinc sulphate.

10. Selenium:

Selenium can be measured directly in: Plasma, Serum, Red cells, Nails, Hair.
The biologically active form of selenium is selenocysteine.
Selenium is essential for normal thyroid hormone metabolism as a component of the iodothyronine deiodinases that control the synthesis and degradation of the biologically active hormone, T3. Selenium deficiency results in an increase in levels of plasma T4 and a corresponding decrease in levels of the more active T3.
Selenium is necessary for the development of the acquired immune system, and has a role to play in the defence system of animals against bacteria and other infections including viral infection. Selenium deficiency occurs in China and some other countries but not in the United States. The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for selenium is 55 mg=day for adults.
Selenium content in milk is about 100-200 moles/l. The recommended dietary allowance is 0.1-0.2 mg/kg; the requirement in a 60-70 kg man is 60-100micrograms a day.
Salt which can be used is Natrum selenite. 
From the above data it is quite apparent that these salts play a vital role in the functioning of the human body. The concept that these salts may be used for the betterment of life and also as preventive in our day-to-day stressful life especially in the cities and metros across the world is a novel thought introduce by the authors. The dose being infinitesimal it would not cause any adverse effects on the economy of the health of the individual seeking to take these salts. This article will go a long way towards the stimulation of the thought processes of an intelligent, rational and an open-minded individual who is keen to welcome the era of non-toxic way of administering simple tissue remedies. Apart from the known tissue salts in the biochemic system of medicine, the addition of new found salts should go a long way in the understanding of these salts and their function in the human body. As more and more awareness is brought about the intricacies of the human body functioning, these salts should be studied with their effects on the health of the individual.
We believe that the future development and use of these tissue salts will lie in more practitioners coming forth to administer them to their patients so that they may be able to lead a healthier life. The acceptance of these salts based on their functions in the human body from the available literature and the experiences of various practitioners should be taken in to account for the benefit of the patient and the humanity at large. We hope that this article will go a long way towards stimulating the thinking individual to incorporate these salts in day to day practice and also communicate with each other the effects of these salts.

  1. Guyton AC, Hall JE. Chapter 71. Dietary Balances; Regulation of Feeding; Obesity and Starvation; Vitamins and Minerals. Textbook of Medical Physiology 11th edition. Elsevier Saunders. 2006. Page 878-879.
  2. Antia F.P., Philip Abraham. Chapter 22. Calcium. Clinical dietetics and Nutrition. 4th Edition. Oxford university press. 2010. Page 136 and 138.
  3. Antia F.P., Philip Abraham. Chapter 24. Magnesium. Clinical dietetics and Nutrition. 4th Edition. Oxford university press. 2010. Page 149.
  4. Antia F.P., Philip Abraham. Chapter 19.Sodium. Clinical dietetics and Nutrition. 4th Edition. Oxford university press. 2010. Page 111-112.
  5. Antia F.P., Philip Abraham. Chapter 20.Potassium. Clinical dietetics and Nutrition. 4th Edition. Oxford university press. 2010. Page 120.
  6. Antia F.P., Philip Abraham. Chapter 21. Iron. Clinical dietetics and Nutrition. 4th Edition. Oxford university press. 2010. Page 127.
  7. Antia F.P., Philip Abraham. Chapter 23. Phosphate. Clinical dietetics and Nutrition. 4th Edition. Oxford university press. 2010. Page 146.
  8. Antia F.P., Philip Abraham. Chapter 27. Copper. Clinical dietetics and Nutrition. 4th Edition. Oxford university press. 2010. Page 158-159.
  9. Antia F.P., Philip Abraham. Chapter 30. Fluoride. Clinical dietetics and Nutrition. 4th Edition. Oxford university press. 2010. Page 163.
  10. Antia F.P., Philip Abraham. Chapter 31. Trace Elements. Clinical dietetics and Nutrition. 4th Edition. Oxford university press. 2010. Page 170.
  11. Susan S Percival. Copper and immunity. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998(suppl);67:1064S–8S
  12. Pak CYC, Sakhaee K., Piziak V., et al. Slow-Release Sodium Fluoride in the Management of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis. A Randomized Controlled Trial;  Ann Intern Med. 1994; 120:625-632
  13. Keith A. McCall, Chih-chin Huang and Carol A. Fierke. Function and Mechanism of Zinc Metalloenzymes. J. Nutr. 130: 1437S—1446S, 2000.
  14. Sandstead, H. Zinc deficiency. A public health problem? Am. J. Dis. Child 1991, 145 (8), 853–859.
  15. Gibson, R.S. Zinc nutrition in developing countries. Nutr. Res. Rev. 1994, 7,

151– 173.

  •  Dr. Nirupam Joshi
  •  Dr. Ashish Nanabhai.


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