Presently, we have no accepted scientific theory of how homeopathic dilutions might work. Several lines of enquiry have been followed over the years with litt le success. One such theory hypothesises the presence of complex water structures, created and propagated through the dilution/succussion process. The problem with such a hypothesis is that our current physical theories predict such structures would not be stable for more than a few picoseconds (10-9 second) and hence these structures could not account for the long term effects reported for homeopathic dilutions2.
Another approach is to use a generalisation of quantum theory, the so called Weak Quantum Theory (WQT) and consider the quantum entanglement between the remedy, the patient and the practitioner3,4. However, WQT approaches do not make physical predictions, which could then be tested experimentally, and hence are hard to prove or disprove. This leaves us with a paucity of theories able to explain how homeopathic dilutions might work. I will now present a new theory, which is currently being investigated by physicists and has the potential to explain part, if not all, of the homeopathic dilution process.
This theory, as initially formulated by G. Preparata, is an extension of the conventionally accepted Quantum Electro-Dynamics (QED) originally formulated in the late 1920s by R Feynman and others to describe how light interacts with matt er. Preparata added the possibility of polarised particles interacting with external electromagnetic (EM) fields and thus opened a new sphere of possible phenomena. The theory suggests the presence of quantum Coherence Domains (CD) in condensed matter (i.e. normal liquids and solids). In the case of water, these CDs would be small volumes of water each one acting as a single ‘quantum’ entity rather than a collection of water molecules randomly colliding with each other.
One can think of these domains as the remnants of the quantum domains which exist in superconductors and superfluids at very low temperatures. At low temperatures the CDs occupy most of the volume of the material, thus endowing it with the ‘strange’ quantum properties of superfl uidity/superconductivity. As the temperature rises these CDs are eroded by the surrounding normal, ‘not-quantumly-coherent’ material, and break into smaller domains. The prediction is that at room temperatures these CDs would account for 28% of the volume of the material, the average size of a CD is estimated to be 250Å, which is the size of a typical protein5,6. Each atom, molecule, or even complex set of molecules, has a range of associated electromagnetic frequencies characteristic of that substance. Actually this signature is so precise that it can be used to detect very small concentrations of pollutants in chemical processes7. Now, what makes these CDs potentially interesting for homeopathy is that they ‘lock-in’ the EM fields present at the time of their creation. In this way CDs would register the EM field characteristic of a given substance. This process could capture the signature of specifi c DNA fragments as in the experiments by Montagnier19, or indeed of any other substance.
CDs of similar EM characteristics are also predicted to tend to clump together, thus requiring an external force to separate them out. The serial dilution/succussion process can then be understood as distributing the CDs carrying the specific EM information around the sample (through vigorous succussions or vortexing) while eventually removing all trace of the original chemical substance (through dilutions).
It is, also, a well documented fact that chemical, biochemical and living systems as a whole are sensitive to EM fields8-10. The administration of properly informed’ CDs could affect these processes in very specifi c ways. Thus a homeopathic remedy, carrying specific information about the EM field of the original substance, would be able to affect biochemical processes in a patient and act as a therapeutic agent.
The physical properties of these CDs would in turn explain many of the reported eff ects of homeopathic dilutions. In particular it would explain the anomalous light spectra (UV-Vis and Raman) of homeopathic dilutions as reported11-13, the anomalous heat of mixing of homeopathic dilutions14, the specific thermoluminescence of homeopathic dilutions15,16, the way in which Benveniste and co reported transmitt ing the effect of a chemical reagent through an EM signal17,18. It could explain the ‘cross talk’ effect reported by Montagnier et al, whereby one strong sample influence the EM spectra of another sample nearby19.
You might think that this is too good to be true, and you might be right. However, the theory as presented by Preparata in 1995 is actually becoming more recognised in conventional streams of physics. The last few years have seen a number of scientific papers confi rming both the theoretical validity of the theory, as well as presenting experimental evidence supporting the existence of the hypothesised CDs20-23. It is thought the presence of CDs could explain many of the unexplained properties of water and other materials20,24
This theory is still debated in the physics circle as it lays down the foundations for a new way of looking at room temperature condensed matter theory, which until relatively recently used a mostly classical description of the interaction between the atoms. Preparata’s QED highlights the possibility of sizeable quantum effects in everyday materials. The links between Preparata’s QED and homeopathic dilutions as briefly presented here are still tenuous; however it is currently the most promising theory out there and one to be followed closely. The HRI intends to design and carry out experiments able to test the hypotheses made by G. Preparata’s.
- Preparata, G. QED coherence in matt er. (World Scientific: 1995).
- Chaplin, M. The memory of water: an overview.HOMEOPATHY 96, 143-150 (2007).
- Walach, H. Entanglement model of homeopathy as an example of generalized entanglement predicted by weak quantum theory. Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd 10, 192-200 (2003).
- Milgrom, L.R. Patient-practitioner-remedy (PPR) entanglement. Part 5. Can homeopathic remedy reactions be outcomes of PPR entanglement? Homeopathy 93, 94-98 (2004).
- Emilio Del Giudice et al. Coherent Quantum Electrodynamics in Living Matter. (2009).atinformahealthcare.com .libproxy. ucl.ac .uk/doi / full/10 . 1080 /15368370500379574>
- Giudice, E. & Preparata, G. Coherent dynamics in water as a possible explanation of biological membranes formation. Journal of Biological Physics 20, 105-116 (1995).
- System and method for sample detection based on low-frequency spectral components – Patent #7412340 – PatentGenius. at com/patent/ 7412340.html>
- Hardell, L. & Sage, C. Biological eff ects from electromagnetic field exposure and public exposure standards. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy 62, 104- 109 (2008).
- Reshetnyak, Shcheglov, blagodatskikh, gariaev & maslov Mechanisms of interaction of electromagnetic radiation with a biosystem. 6, Mechanisms of interaction of electromagnetic radiation with a biosystem (1996).
- Liboff , A.R. Toward an Electromagnetic Paradigm for Biology and Medicine. J Altern Complement Med 10, 41-47 (2004).
- Rao, M., Roy, R., Bell, I. & Hoover, R. The defi ning role of structure (including epitaxy) in the plausibility of homeopathy. Homeopathy 96, 175-182 (2007).
- Rao, M.L., Roy, R. & Bell, I. Characterization of the structure of ultra dilute sols with remarkable biological properties. Materials Lett ers 62, 1487-1490 (2008).
- Wolf, U., Wolf, M., Heusser, P., Thurneysen, A. & Baumgartner, S. Homeopathic Preparations of Quartz, Sulfur and Copper Sulfate Assessed by UV-Spectroscopy. eCAM nep036 (2009). doi:10.1093/ecam/nep036
- Elia, V. et al. Interaction of “extremely diluted solutions” with aqueous solutions of hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide: A calorimetric study at 298 K. Journal of Molecular Liquids 130, 15-20 (2007).
- Rey, L. Thermoluminescence of ultra-high dilutions of lithium chloride and sodium chloride. Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications 323, 67-74 (2003).
- Rey, L. Can low-temperature thermoluminescence cast light on the nature of ultra-high dilutions? Homeopathy 96, 170-174 (2007).
- Benveniste, J. & Guillonner, D. QED and digital biology. RIVISTA DI BIOLOGIA-BIOLOGY FORUM 97, 169-172 (2004).
- Thomas, Y. et al. Activation of human neutrophils by electronically transmitt ed phorbol-myristate acetate. MEDICAL HYPOTHESES 54, 33-39 (2000).
- Montagnier, L., Aïssa, J., Ferris, S., Montagnier, J. & Lavalléee, C. Electromagnetic signals are produced by aqueous nanostructures derived from bacterial DNA sequences. Interdisciplinary Sciences: Computational Life Sciences 1, 81-90 (2009).
- Yinnon, C. & Yinnon, T. Domains in aqueous solutions: Theory and experimental evidence. Modern Physics Letters B 23, 1959-1973 (2009).
- Sivasubramanian, S., Widom, A. & Srivastava, Y.N. Gauge invariant formulations of Dicke-Preparata super-radiant models. Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications 301, 241-254 (2001).
- Sivasubramanian, S., Widom, A. & Srivastava, Y. Microscopic basis of thermal superradiance. Journal of Physics Condensed Matt er 15, 1109-1118 (2003).
- Apostol, M. Coherence domains in matt er interacting with radiation. Physics Lett ers A 373, 379- 384 (2009).
- Del Giudice, E., Preparata, G. & Fleischmann, M. QED coherence and electrolyte solutions. JOURNAL OF ELECTROANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY 482, 110-116 (2000).